·Table of Contents
·Conservation and Restoration in Art and Architecture

Wax Analysis in conservation objects by solubility studies, FTIR and DSC

Ulla Knuutinen
EVITech Institute of Art and Design
Lummetie 2
01300 Vantaa

Anna Norrman
EVITech Institute of Technology
Leiritie 1
01600 Vantaa



Analytical Methods

Experimental procedure and sample material




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  2. L. Masschelein- Kleiner, Ancient Binding Media, Varnishes and Adhesives, (ICCROM,Rome,1995), 33- 45.
  3. A. Burmester, Investigation of Paint Media by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) Studies in Conservation 37 (1992): 73-81.
  4. V.J. Purewal, An Investigation into the Composition of Botanical Wax Models with a View to Their Coservation, SSCR Conference of resins, Aberdeen (1995), 42-46.
  5. R. Newman, Binders in Painting, MRS Bulletin, December (1996), 24-31.
  6. R. Van Schoute and H. Verougstrete-Marcq, Scientific Examination of Easel Paintings, PACT (1986).
  7. J.P. Sibilia, Material Characterization and Chemical Analysis, 2nd, VCH, (1996),267-274.
  8. G. Schwedt, The Essential Guide to Analytical Chemistry, 2nd, Chichester, (1997), 72- 81.
  9. B. Stuart, G. Bill and P.Mclntyre, Modern Infrared Spectroscopy, West Sussex, (1996).
  10. H. W. Dudley and I. Fleming, Spectroscopic Methods in rganic Chemistry, 4nd , London, (1989).
  11. C.V. Horie, Materials for Conservation, Buttewrorth, (1994)
  12. Schamm Hans-pater, Hering Bernd, Historische Materialen und ihre Identifizierung, VEB,
  13. (1989), 86- 91.
  14. M.R. Derrick, D.Stulik and J.M. Landry, Infrared Spectroscopy in Conservation Science, The Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, (1999)

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