NDTnet 1998 February, Vol.3 No.2

The Impact-Echo Method

by Mary J. Sansalone and William B. Streett *

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Abstract

The Impact-Echo Method

Destructive and Nondestructive Testing

How Impact-Echo Works

The Impact-Echo Test System

Applications

Case Studies

Contents:
1. Introduction
2. Development of the Method
3. Stress Waves
4. Waveforms
5. Frequency Analysis
6. Digital Signals
7. Wave Speed
8. Plate Thickness
9. Cracks and Voids in Plates
10. Shallow Delaminations
11. Unconsolidated Concrete
12. Surface-Opening Cracks
13. Plates in Contact With Soils
14. Plates Containing Two Layers
15. Bond Quality at Internal Interfaces
16. Plates With Asphalt Overlays
17. Steel Reinforcing Bars
18. Bonded Post-Tensioning Tendons
19. Hollow Cylinders
20. Mine Shaft and Tunnel Liners
21. Circular and Square Cross Sections
22. Rectangular Cross Sections
23. Masonry
24. Field Testing

Impact-Echo: The Book

References

About the Authors

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