NDTnet 1998 April,
Non-destructive Examination of Welds -
Ultrasonic Examination of Welded Joints;
EN 1714 : 1997
(replacement for DIN 54125 : 1989-01)
A summarize by Rolf Diederichs
The scope of the EN 1714 is intended for the ultrasonic examination of
full-fusion welds in ferritic materials with a minimum plate thickness of 8
mm. The standard can be applied by agreement between contract partners on
other materials, weld configurations and automatic testing. The scope
defines four examination levels which are directly related to the European
welding standard EN 25817 'Guidance on quality levels for weld imperfections'.
2. Normative references
3. Definition and Symbols
For two symbols the standard use variations between the three standard
languages German, English and French.
The German version uses DKSR (Durchmesser eines
Kreisscheibenreflektors) and DQB (Durchmesser einer Querbohrung)
while the English and French version use DDSR
(Diameter of the equivalent disc-shaped reflector) and DSDH
(Diameter of a side drilled hole).
The standard defines the test equipment, preparation, examination
procedure and the test report.
The determination of characteristics, especially of the probes, refers to
and prEN 1713.
5. Necessary Information before testing
The sub-clauses 5.1. and 5.2 describe details which contracting partners may
have to define.
Sub-clause 5.3. points out that written procedures are not required when
working strictly within the parameters stated within the standard for a
particular examination level. However, the standard makes it clear that
procedures must be used when specified by contract.
6. Personnel and Equipment Requirements
6.1 personnel qualifications must be in accordance with EN 473
6.2 claims that the applied equipment must fulfill other European
standards, or if those are still not ready the equivalent national standards
shall be used.
6.3.1 permits probes of only 2 MHz to 5 MHz frequencies, however,
exceptions are possible. If improved resolution for characterization is
needed (e.g. in prEN 1713) a
higher frequency can be used. A probe frequency of approx. 1 MHz can be
used in cases of long sound paths.
6.3.2 Angle of incidences.
This clause describes in particular the bounce angle on the coupling's far
surface side (V-technique), which must lie within a range of 35° to 70°.
Usage on curved work pieces is described.
6.3.3 Modifications of probe faces on curved work pieces. There is a
the gap between probe shoe and work piece surface may not be greater than 0.5
mm. (That seems to be a loose approximation since no more probe
are specified in this sub-clause).
7. Test volume
The examination must cover the weld and on both sides at least 10 mm of the
parent material or the width of the heat affected zone (HAZ) if this is the
larger value (Fig 1).
8. Preparation of scanning surfaces
The coupling surface does not have to be as rigorously controlled as in
BS 3923 (appendix B) [..].
It permits scanning on almost any surface provided it is free from
inconsistencies that prevent satisfactory probe coupling. However, on
surfaces where the sound beam is reflected, the surface smoothness limits are
specified for machined (Ra =6,3µm) and shot-blasted surfaces
9. Examination of the parent material
Parent material under the coupling surface does not require an examination
if this region is proven to be defect-free (the evidence can be an
early inspection during manufacturing).
10. Range and sensitivity setting
10.2 Sensitivity level
Four methods of sensitivity level settings are described.
Method 1: DAC curve of 3mm DSDH (diameter side drilled hole).
Method 2: AVG curve of 1 to 3 mm DDSR (diameter of the
equivalent disc-shaped reflector).
Method 3: DAC curve of 1 mm notch.
Tandem testing: DDSR = 6 mm for the complete wall thickness range.
10.3 Evaluation levels
10.4 Transfer corrections
Describes procedures with respect to differences of characterizations between
reference body and work piece under test.
Recommended Examination Levels
in EN 25817
11. Examination levels
The scope defines four examination levels which are directly related to the
European welding standard EN 25817 'Guidance on quality levels for weld
imperfections' (table 5).
12. Methods of evaluation
Ultrasonic testing must be performed in accordance to prEN 583-1
12.2. Probe manipulation
The probe can be swiveled +-10°
12.3. Testing of defects lying perpendicular to the coupling surface
Such defects are difficult to test with the standard angle probe method.
Special test techniques shall be used to detect those defects especially for
The application of those test techniques must be agreed upon by contracting
12.4 Localization of defects
The location of the evaluated defects must be defined by a lay down in a
coordinate system (see Fig 2)
12.5 Evaluation of indications
The standard requires the amplitude (peaked) of an indication to be
recorded, with respect to the applicable evaluation level, and its length,
as determined by the 6 dB drop technique. That can be altered by agreement
between the contracting partners.
Other defect characteristics need only be recorded if defined by prior
agreement between the contracting partners.
13. Test report
This chapter describes the items of a table of contents of a comprehensive
Appendix A: Scanning requirements
Scanning requirements are comprehensively laid out in seven tables. They
cover Plate and Pipe Butt Welds, Structural Tee Welds, Set-On and
Set-Through Nozzle Welds, Structural 'L' Welds and Cruciform Welds.
For each weld type a table defines the parameters, material thickness,
examination level (A-D), scan surface width, number of required probe angles
and the number of probe positions to be applied. Parameters are defined for
longitudinal and transversal defects.
Table 2 summarizes some parameters of a Butt Weld.
|Weld Type||Material thickness||Scans||Long. Angle||Compression||Trans. Angle
|Examination Level C
|Examination Level B
|Examination Level A
Final editor's note:
I read the article " A comparison of Ultrasonic Weld Testing Standards: BS
EN 1714 and BS 3923 Part 1" [..] The article expressed satisfaction, more
or less, with the replacement of the BS 3923 by the new EN 1714.
The new standard is seen as simpler and demanding less operator skills
than the BS 3923.
The author mentioned in one paragraph: "I am less happy that EN 1714 permits
testing of welds from one surface. One valuable lesson I have learned in my
career is "the shortest distance between two points is a straight line". I
believe it is short-sighted to think that a full skip scan from one surface
is as effective as a half skip from both surfaces."
Copyright © Rolf Diederichs,
firstname.lastname@example.org 1. Apr 1998
/DB:Article /AU:Diederichs_R /IN:NDTnet /CN:DE /CT:UT /CT:standard /CT:weld /ED:1998-04