|In the past years, many interesting test objectives have been submitted to the engineers and technicians of Krautkraemer's
applications laboratory. The following selection may invite readers
to develop more good ideas.|
This series was first published in the Krautkraemer Company Journal "Echo" beginning with Issue No.32 in 1986. We think that it is still a valuable source and we will continue with excerpts from Issues 33, Issue No.34, and 35. The instruments mentioned here are Krautkraemer products, many still in use today. For information on the latest models, please contact Krautkraemer.
"Readers' UT Applications". We invite readers to submit brief application descriptions to Rolf Diederichs .
Test method (Instrument/probe)
|1.||Detection of cracks in brake disks.||Pulse-echo in immersion technique; 45° angle of incidence with 2MHz shear waves; automatic evaluation of the flaw echo amplitudes (USIP 11/Z2N).|
|2.||Verification of flux presence inside selfflux solder||Pulse-echo immersion technique; line focused 10 MHz longitudinal wave; evaluation of the echo sequence from the wall (USIP 11/Z10ML15).|
|3.||Detection of bonding defects in lead-coated aluminum profiles 20-80 mm (0.~3.2 inches) long.||Pulse-echo immersion technique; 2 MHz highly damped probe; evaluation of the interface according to the back wall echo amplitude (USL 32/H2K).|
|4.||Examination of the round fillet weld on track roller holders.||Pulse-echo, contact method with 70° 5 MHz shear-wave angle beam probe, wedge adapted to test piece; evaluation of the flaw echo amplitude (USIP 11/W70K5K).|
|Detection of delaminations in honeycomb parts for aircraft vertical stabilizers (c= artificial delamination).||Pulse-echo, contact testing with highly damped 1 MHz longitudinal wave probe; evaluation of the back wall echo amplitude (USIP 11/K1S).|
|6.||Cure evaluation of multilayer components made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics.||Through-transmission contact testing with highly damped 1 MHz longitudinal wave probes; evaluation of amplitude and transit time of the through-transmission indication (USIP 11/2xK1SM special)|
|7.||Wall thickness measurement of plastic-coated high voltage cables (thickness of coating 1.5 - 3 mm (0.06 - 0.12 inches).||Pulse-echo immersion technique; highly damped 10 MHz probe; measurement between the front surface and the first back wall echo (KSE/H10M).|
|8.||Detection of inclusions in hard metal rods with diameters of 2 - 40 mm (0.08 - 1.6 inches).||Pulse-echo in immersion technique with point focused longitudinal waves; using highly damped 10 MHz probe, evaluation of the flaw echos with helical scanning (USL 32 H10M/H10MP15).|
|9.||Measurement of the remaining wall thickness on used car bodies, corroded from the inside.||pulse-echo, contact technique; 10 MHz dual element longitudinal wave probe; automatic evaluation of the first back wall echo; digital display of the measured thickness (DM 2 LCDM/DA 212).|
|10.||Wall thickness measurement of lead-coated flat cables, 5x8 mm (0.2 x 0.32 inches) with coating thicknesses of 0.7 - 1.1 mm (0.02 0.043 inches).||Pulse-echo, contact-TR technique; 10 MHz dual element longitudinal wave probe; automatic evaluation of the first back wall echo; digital display of the measurement (DM 2/DA 212).|
|11.||Inspection of pharmaceutical tablets for internal flaws and correct density.||Pulse-echo, contact method via a silicon layer "C" under the load of a pressing device "D"; 5 MHz longitudinal wave, measurement of sound velocity and evaluation of the intermediate echoes (USIP 11/H5M).|
|12.||Hardness test on ceramic seal rings.||UCI method with clamped probe, digital display in Vickers hardness when a reference block is available, otherwise relative measurements (MlCRODUR/probe).|
|13.||Examination of the adhesive bonding between the decorative foil and the profile of plastic windows.||Pulse-echo, contact technique with 4 MHz dual element longitudinal wave probe; evaluation of the back wall echo drop in areas with poor bonding (USK 7/SEB4KF8).|
|14.||Detection of cracks in integrated circuit housings induced in the production process (caused by the bending of the connector pins).||Pulse-echo, immersion technique with point-focused longitudinal waves; automatic control of test sequence and evaluation of the interface echo (housing/pin) (USL 32/H10MP15).|
|15.||Detection of cracks and clustered porosity in sintered magnetic cores with outer diameters of 12 - 24 mm (0.47 - 0.94 inches).||through-transmission, immersion technique, with line-focused 4 MHz longitudinal waves, automatic evaluation of the through-transmission signal (USIP 11/2xZ4KL20).|
|16.||Examination of plates lacquer-coated on one side for the adhesion of the lacquer coating.||pulse-echo, contact method with 15 MHz highly damped probe; evaluation of the interface echo amplitude between the lacquer coating and the plate (USL 32/CLF4).|
|17.||Detection of near-surface disbonds in electrolyte-copperpro files (12 mm/0.47 inch long).||pulse echo, immersion technique with "paintbrush" probe, scanning the complete profile width in one pass, evaluation of the back wall echo drop (USL 32/LWW 637).|
|18.||Detection of defects (equivalent to a 0.5 mm/0.02 inch circular reflector) in austenitic forged parts for medical applications.||Pulse-echo in immersion technique with longitudinal waves; highly damped 10 MHz probe; part scanned from several directions; evaluation of the defect echo amplitudes (USL 32/H10M).|
|19.||Examination of electron beam welds (S) of injection jets (detection of bonding defects and incompletely through-welded seam sections).||Test method: pulse-echo in immersion technique with longitudinal waves; highly damped 10 MHz probe (rotating test piece); evaluation of the defect echo amplitudes in one test cycle (USIP 11/H10M).|
|20.||Detection of shrinkage cavities in the plastic housings of integrated circuits.||pulse-echo, immersion technique with point-focused, longitudinal wave; highly damped 10 MHz probe; evaluation of the defect echoes and the attenuation of the interface echoes from the housing/conductor strip (USL 32/H10MP15).|
|21.||Measurement of the gap width ("S") in double housings of explosion-proof equipment.||pulse-echo, contact method with highly damped 10 MHz longitudinal wave probe; evaluation of the echo-sequence from the gap with digital display yields the gap dimension. (+-0.01 mm/ 0.0004 inch) (CL 204 or USL 48/CLF5).|
|22.||Evaluation of the "calked condition" of interlocked pressfits of jointed shafts.||pulse-echo in immersion technique with point-focused longitudinal waves; highly damped 10 MHz probe; evaluation of the interface echoes for position determination of the front end of the shaft (USL 32/H10MP15).|
Echo 32 was edited by W. Grabendörfer, H. Stoll, H.W. Corsepius.
The Echo is published free of charge at various intervals and is produced by:
Krautkrämer GmbH Co.
P. 0. Box 13 63 D-50354 Hürth
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