| For this edition of "the echo" Krautkramer has selected some interesting test reports.|
This series was first published in the Krautkraemer Company Journal "Echo" beginning with Issue No.32 in 1986. We think that it is still a valuable source and we finished with excerpts from Issues 33, 34, and 35. The instruments mentioned here are Krautkraemer products, many still in use today. For information on the latest models, please contact Krautkraemer.
"Readers' UT Applications". We invite readers to submit brief application descriptions to Rolf Diederichs .
Test method (Instrument/probe)
|1.||Wall thickness measurement on glass containers (glas ampoules). Minimum wall thickness: 0.15 mm. Nominal dimensions: D 4.8 x 0.8 to D 12 x 1.0 mm||Coupling via bubbler with suitable support for the test object. Measurement is made in a special menu (changing measurement blocking time, BE to BE evaluation, PRF). An oscilloscope is required for checking pulse indications in order to align the glass container to max. echo sequence at the point of measurement. (CL 304, oscilloscope)|
|2.||Wall thickness measurements on copper tube bends at the longer side||Coupling via bubbler with support for the tube bend. Measurement is made in special menus (changing measurement blocking time, phase rotation) (CL 304)|
|3.||The detection of shrinkage cavities in the bearing seat of swivel bearings which are made of nodular graphite cast iron||Testing is carried out using the immersion technique; sound entry point and angle are selected so that the seat is hit at a tangent to the sound beam. (USM 3 S)|
|4.||Detection of porosities in the connection area of brass fittings||Testing is carried out using the immersion technique; the test object is positioned so that it can be turned. A multiecho sequence is received; the multi-echo sequence will collapse if porosities are detected. (USM 3 S)|
|5.||Detection of porous areas in the rubber of shock absorbers||Testing is carried out using the immersion technique; the test object is positioned so that it can be turned. Through-transmission is made of the rubber section. Porosities will cause shadowing of the indication > 6 dB. (USM 3 S)|
|6.||Detection of cracks on the inside of the web as well as densitiy changes in the outside of silicon carbide profiles||Multi-track testing using the immersion technique. Detection of density changes is made via shadowing of the backwall echo amplitude. Crack detection is made by observing the drop in the flaw echo or backwall echo and is dependent on the progression of the crack. (USIP 12)|
|7.||Detection of air bubbles in the casting of a temperature sensor||Testing is carried out using the immersion technique; the test object is positioned so that it can be turned. Any detected air bubbles will cause shadowing of the through-transmission indication. (USM3 S)|
|8.||Testing thermit welds on rails||Testing is carried out in a special tandem holder. Both sides of the weld are scanned in order to detect flaws at the interface. An additional test is made of the foot with a single crystal angle beam probe. (USM 3 S)|
|9.||Testing the laser weld on separator disks||Testing is carried out using the immersion technique; the test object is positioned so that it can be turned. Scanning is carried out at a constant distance to the; weld and evaluation is made of the echo amplitude from the weld zone. (USM 3 S)|
|10.||Testing the laser weld of conductor coverings for penetration||Testing is carried out using the immersion technique; the scanning point and angle is selected so that transverse waves occur parallel to the surface and meet the root area vertically. Evaluation of the amplitude from the remaining gap. (USM 3 S)|
|11.||Testing melt end stones for shrinkage cavities||Direct contact of the probe on opposite surface on the mould side. Evaluation of the echo from shrinkage cavities as well as the height of the backwall echo. (USL 33)|
Echo 35 was edited by U. Huhn, W.-D. Kleinert, R. Krause, H. Neuhaus
The Echo is published free of charge at various intervals and is produced by:
Krautkrämer GmbH Co.
P. 0. Box 13 63 D-50354 Hürth
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