NDTnet - July 1996, Vol.1 No.07

Setting and Hardening of Concret continuosly monitored by Elastic Waves


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A short pulse either generated by an ultrasonic generator or by a steel ball impact travels through a fresh concrete specimen. Three features are measured: the propagation velocity of the compressional wave, the transmitted energy, and the frequency spectrum. All are sensitive to the age of concrete and to the composition of the mix. The varying parameters are water-cement ratio, dosage of retarder and super retarder, and type of cement. The setting and hardening of the concrete can be followed accurately. Keywords: Fresh concrete, setting, hardening, non-destructive testing, ultrasound, retarder, wave propagation.


1 Introduction

2 Test method

3 Testing materials

4 Testing results and discussion

5 Future needs and development

6 Acknowledgments

7 References

  1. Bartos, P.J.M. (ed.) (1994) Special concretes. Workability and mixing, E & FN Spon, London, 264 pp.
  2. L'Hermite, R. (1955) Idées actuelles sur la technologie du béton. Documentation TBTP, Paris, pp. 193-200.
  3. van der Winden, N.G.B. (1990) Ultrasonic measurement for setting control of concrete. In "Testing during concrete construction", ed. by H.W. Reinhardt, Chapman & Hall, London, pp. 122-137.
  4. Niyogi, S.K., Das Roy, P.K., Roychaudhuri, M. (1990) Acousto-ultrasonic study on hydration of portland cement. Cer. Trans., Vol. 16, pp. 137-145.
  5. Reichelt, U., Nickel, U., Röthig, H. (1991) Möglichkeiten für die Qualitätskontrolle von Frischbeton mit der Ultraschall-Messtechnik. Beton- und Stahlbetonbau 86, H. 6, pp. 147-148.
  6. Keating, J., Hannant, D.J., Hibbert, A.P. (1989a) Comparison of shear modulus and pulse velocity techniques to measure the build-up structure in fresh cement pastes used in oil well cementing. Cem. Conc. Res., Vol 19, pp. 554-566.
  7. Keating, J., Hannant, D.J., Hibbert, A.P. (1989b) Correlation between cube strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity and volume change for oil well cement slurries. Cem. Conc. Res., Vol. 19, pp. 715-726.
  8. Boutin, C., Arnaud, L. (1995) Mechanical characterization of heterogeneous materials during setting. Eur. J. Mech., A/Solids 14, No. 4, pp 633-656
  9. Jonas, M. (1991) Einsatzmöglichkeiten einer Ultraschall-Frequenzanalyse bei der Erhärtung anorganischer, mineralischer Bindemittel. Forschungskolloquium DAfStb, Bochum, pp. 187-191.
  10. Sayers, C.M., Dahlin, A. (1993) Propagation of ultrasound through hydrating cement parts at early times. Advanced Cement Based Materials 1, pp. 12-21.
  11. Berryman, J.G. (1980) Confirmation of Biot's theory. Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 37, No. 4. pp. 382-384.


Prof. Dr.-Ing. H.W. REINHARDT , born in 1939, studied Civil Engineering and made a thesis on photoelastic investigation of three-dimensional transient thermal stresses. Today he is Professor for Civil engineering materials at Stuttgart Univerity and Managing director of Otto-Graf-Institute (FMPA - Material Testing Research Institute) , Stuttgart, Germany.
email: reinhardt@po.uni-stuttgart.de
Dipl.-Geophys. C.U. GROSSE born in 1961, studied Geophysics at the University of Karlsruhe. Today he procceed on his thesis (Deadline for July 1996) and is a research member at the Institute of Construction Materials, University of Stuttgart, Germany.
email: christian.grosse@po.uni-stuttgart.de
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    Rolf Diederichs 1.July 1996, info@ndt.net
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