International Symposium (NDTCE 2003) NonDestructive Testing in Civil Engineering 2003  
Start > Contributions >Posters > Structures: 
Non Destructive Reliability Analysis of Concrete Structures Numerical concepts and material models for existing concrete structuresAlfred Strauss & Konrad Bergmeister, Ulrich SantaInstitute of Structural Engineering, University of Applied Sciences, Vienna, Austria Radomir Pukl & Vladimir Cervenka, Cervenka Consulting, Prague, Czech Republic Drahomir Novák Faculty of Civil Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic ABSTRACTA probabilistic approach to the nonlinear analysis of civil engineering structures is presented. Finite element software ATENA is used for realistic simulation of concrete and reinforced concrete structures. It is combined with the stochastic package FREET into software system SARA. This system enables to take into account uncertainties and randomness of structural input parameters for the nonlinear analysis. SARA system offers a userfriendly interactive graphical environment as well as an extensive database with statistic information about material, geometrical and other structural and load properties in order to support the user during his task. The basic aim of the probabilisticbased nonlinear analysis is to obtain an estimation of the structural response statistics (failure load, deflections, cracks, stresses, etc.), which is used for sensitivity studies, safety and reliability assessment as well as for identification of structural computer models Keywords: 1 IntroductionOptimum balance between cost and safety of concrete structures, e.g. bridges, is becoming a common problem worldwide. It has been found that reliability assessment which is going beyond the boundaries of codes can bring a significant money saving and provide a new insight into bridge administration and decisionmaking process (Casas et al. 2002, Enevoldsen 2001, Frangopol 2000). Methodologies for use of probabilistic based assessment are available and have been proven to work in practice. But suitable tools for use in design offices are generally missing. The authors of this paper combined efficient techniques of both fracture mechanics and reliability engineering to achieve the goal: to assess realistic behavior of concrete bridges from reliability point of view. The aim of the paper is to present applications of probabilisticbased assessment approach. It is based on recently developed integrated system of nonlinear fracture mechanics software ATENA and probabilistic module FREET called SARA (Structural Analysis and Reliability Assessment). As nonlinear analysis is computationally intensive, a suitable technique of statistical Monte Carlo simulation should be utilized which requires rather small number of simulations for accurate results. Latin Hypercube Sampling technique appeared to be efficient technique in this context. The feasibility and outcomes of the approach are documented on selected numerical examples of stochastic failure simulation of concrete structures resulting in reliability assessment. 2 NONLINEAR SIMULATION OF ENGINEERING STRUCTURESATENA is wellestablished finite element software for realistic computer simulation of damage and failure of concrete and reinforced concrete structures in deterministic way (Cervenka 2000, 2002). The constitutive relation in a material point (constitutive model) plays the most crucial role in the finite element analysis and decides how the structural model represents reality. Since concrete is a complex material with strongly nonlinear response even under service load conditions, special constitutive models for the finite element analysis of concrete structures are employed (Cervenka et al. 2001). 2.1 Material models
A real discrete crack is simulated by a band of localized strains, Figure 2. The crack strain is related to the element size. Consequently, the softening law in terms of strains for the smeared model is calculated for each element individually, while the crackopening law is preserved. This model is objective due to the energy formulation and its dependency on the finite element mesh size is neglectable, which was confirmed by numerous studies (e.g. Cervenka & Pukl 1995). Two alternative crack models are recognized: fixed and rotated crack model. In the fixed crack model the crack direction is determined and fixed at the time of crack initiation. In the rotating crack model the crack direction is identical with a principal strain direction at every stage and rotate if the strain direction changes. The main difference in these crack models is the absence of shear stresses on the crack plane in the rotating crack model due coincidence of principal strain directions with the crack orientation, which makes the rotating crack model more simple. In the fixed crack model the shear resistance of the cracks is modeled by means of the variable shear retention factor, which reflects the aggregate interlock effect of cracked concrete. Concrete in plane stress condition can be well described by a damage model. The model used in ATENA is based on the equivalent uniaxial law, which covers the complete range of the plane stress behavior in tension and compression. The effect of biaxial stress state on the concrete strength is captured by the biaxial failure function. For the tensile response (cracking) the crack band method described above is applied. Similar method is applied for the compressive softening. Thus the complete softening behavior is based on an objective and mesh independent approach.
Concrete in the threedimensional stress state is covered by the theory of plasticity with a nonassociated flow rule, Figure 3. An important phenomenon in the threedimensional behavior of concrete, which is reflected in the implemented material model according to Menétrey & Willam (1995) is a strong influence of the lateral stresses to the compressive strength, so called confinement. The strength is increasing with the hydrostatic compressive stress. The plasticity theory describes also the plastic flow and volume change due to a distorsion and can model the volume increase of concrete under plastic deformations. Cervenka & Cervenka (1999) implemented a predictorcorrector scheme with return mapping algorithm covering this behavior. The general threedimensional behavior of concrete can be also well described by the microplane models based on a microstructural damage idea: constitutive laws are formulated on several planes with an arbitrary orientation  microplanes. Stressstrain equations are defined independently for projection of the macroscopic strain tensor to the microplanes. The macroscopic material response (stress tensor in a material point) is consequently integrated over all microplanes by principle of virtual work. Microplane model by Baant et al. (2000) is implemented in ATENA and can be used for solution of practical cases. Many other material models are implemented in ATENA in order to support a successful simulation (reinforcement, steel, bond slip of reinforcing bars, interface, soil, etc.). 2.2 Features and structure of ATENA software The preprocessing includes an automatic meshing procedure, which generates Q10, isoparametric quadrilateral and triangular elements. Reinforcement can be treated in form of reinforcing bars, prestressing cables or as smeared reinforcement given by reinforcement ratio and direction. The discrete reinforcement is fully independent on the finite element mesh. The structure can be loaded with various actions: body forces, nodal or linear forces, supports, prescribed deformations, temperature, shrinkage, prestressing. These loading cases are combined into load steps, which are solved utilizing advanced solution methods: NewtonRaphson, modified NewtonRaphson or arclength. Secant, tangential or elastic material stiffness can be employed in particular models. Linesearch method with optional parameters accelerates the convergence of solution, which is controlled by energybased and residuabased criteria. The graphical postprocessing can show cracks in concrete with their thickness, shear and residual normal stresses. Userdefined crack filter is available for obtaining of realistic crack patterns. Other important values (strains, stresses, deflections, forces, reactions etc.) can be represented graphically as rendered areas, isoareas, and isolines, in form of vector or tensor arrow fields. All values can be also obtained in wellarranged numerical form. In the necessary modifications of ATENA for implementation into SARA system it was a crucial point to keep all of the features described in the concise survey above available also for the repeated stochastic analysis. It was enabled due to versatile programming architecture and build up of ATENA system, which supersedes usual finite element packages. 3 PROBABILISTICBASED ASSESSMENTA multipurpose probabilistic software for statistical, sensitivity and reliability analysis of engineering problems FREET (Feasible Reliability Engineering Efficient Tool) is based on efficient reliability techniques. In general, it is designed in the form suitable for relatively easy assessment of any userdefined computational problem written in C++ or FORTRAN programming languages, but it is focused especially on the computationally intensive problems, which do not allow performing thousands of samples. Software FREET and the methods utilized in this program are subject of another papers submitted to this conference by Novák et al. (2003) and Vorechovský & Novák (2003). Therefore, only some basic ideas and principles are comprehensively mentioned here. 3.1 Latin hypercube sampling 3.2 Statistical correlation by simulated annealing 3.3 Sensitivity analysis 3.4 Reliability assessment 4 NONLINEAR STOCHASTIC SIMULATIONThe programs FREET and ATENA are integrated in software package SARA (Structural Analysis and Reliability Assessment) in order to allow for a probabilistic nonlinear analysis of concrete structures (Bergmeister et al. 2002, Pukl et al. 2003). It enables also degradation analysis of reinforced concrete structures as shown by Teplý et al. (2003). 4.1 SARA Studio 4.2 Randomization of input variables 4.3 Repeated nonlinear solution 4.4 Solution procedure
5 APPLICATION EXAMPLEThe feasibility and outcomes of the stochastic fracture analysis are documented on a practical example of statistical failure simulation and reliability assessment of existing bridge structure: cantilever beam bridge on the Brenner Motorway in Italy with a length of 167.5 m. Another example of segmental prestressed bridge was presented by Pukl et al. (2002).
5.1 Highway bridge  cantilever beam 5.2 Stochastic simulations
Correlation between material parameters was introduced. The prescribed correlation matrix is shown in the upper triangle of Table 2. The lower triangle of Table 2 shows the correlation matrix generated by simulating annealing for 30 samples.
In the nonlinear simulations (samples) the relationship between the applied line load and the vertical displacement at selected points has been monitored. The ultimate load and postpeak behavior (descending branch) have been obtained. The bridge girder failed typically next to the middle support. First the prestressed tendons yielded, tensile cracks developed in the upper flange of the box girder and finally shear failure occurs. Two different failure modes occurred in the analyses  with negative and positive vertical displacement at the end of the cantilever beams. Histograms of monitored values were obtained and evaluated in FREET, statistical characteristic were estimated. Estimated statistical characteristics of the ultimate load (resistance of the structure) for 8 and 30 samples are compared in Table 3. They show that already a sample size of about 8 samples gives good results for this problem.
5.3 Reliability assessment
Furthermore, reliability of the bridge related to the vertical displacements was investigated and compared with JCSS (2001) regulations, see Figures 7. It resulted that the end of the north cantilever is the critical point regarding the vertical displacements. CONCLUSIONSA Methodology for probabilisticbased assessment of concrete structures is introduced and documented on practical example. The programs FREET and ATENA are combined in the software package SARA in order to support stochastic nonlinear analysis. This approach enables stochastic assessment of the analyzed structure, which is going beyond the boundaries of design codes. It can lead to considerable cost saving as the reliability requirements can be targeted more precisely. Additional to this performed stochastic calculation a monitoring system is established at this investigated object. So it is looked ahead to compare the information extracted of the simulation with the monitoring data. This scheme allows to adjust in more detail the stochastic models  some of the parameters are assumed  and furthermore to evaluate the current probability of failure and the remaining lifespan. REFERENCES

