International Symposium (NDTCE 2003) NonDestructive Testing in Civil Engineering 2003  
Start > Contributions >Posters > Structures: 
STRENGTHENING OF CONCRETE BEAMS USING CFRP STRIPS ANCHORAGE OF EXTERNALLY GLUED STRIPSPetr tepánek, Prof. Ing. Ph.D., Brno University of Technology, Czech RepublicIvana varícková, Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic Jirí Adámek, Prof. Ing. Ph.D., Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic AbstractAnchorage of externally bonded reinforcement is the main problem for strengthening concrete structures with CFRP strips. This paper presents the mathematical theory of prestressed CFRP strips anchorage. Results of solution of differential equations describing the elasticity problem of bonded CFRP strip are compared with some tests results. 1 Analytical solution of anchorage zonesDerivation of the fundamental equations for anchoring bonded nonprestressed CFRP strips was published by Brosens & Van Gemert (1999). Static equations of equilibrium and the elementary equations of elasticity were derived based on the fundamental equations of a concrete cross section strengthened with CFRP strips as follows
where s_{p}(x) is normal stress in CFRP strip, s_{c}(x) is normal stress in the bottom of a concrete beam , t_{p}(x) is shear stress in direction of axis x in adhesive, t_{a }is thickness of adhesive, t_{p}is thickness of CFRP plate, E_{p }is Youngâ(tm)s modulus of CFRP plate, E_{c }is Youngâ(tm)s modulus of concrete, G_{a}is shear modulus of adhesive (N/mm^{2 }). The arrangement of anchorage tests is shown in Figure 3 and 4, the scheme of acting stresses and forces is drawn in Figure 1. If we assume that
it is possible to write
where M(x) is the bending moment and N(x) is the normal force.
The normal stress distribution over the concrete section is given according to NavierÂ´s law
where A_{tr} is area of transformed cross section (transformed factor and ), I_{ tr} is moment of inertia of the transformed cross section, z_{ctr} is the distance of the loaded concrete fibres from to the centroid of the transformed cross section. The solution of nonhomogeneous differential equations (1) and (2) can be found as follows
with The constants C_{1} and C_{2} are found out by using appropriate boundary conditions. Figure 2a shows the distribution of the normal stresses s_{p}(x), s_{c}(x) and the shear stress t_{p}(x) along the x axis. In this solved example, the influence of anchorage by distance of 35 mm from the end of plate can be neglected. The design details and material characteristics are: a beam 150x150x600 mm, strip SIKA CarboDur S512, E_{c}=27 Gpa, E_{p}=155 GPa, G_{a}=5,33 GPa. The scheme of loading is shown in Figure 1. Figure 2b shows the internal forces (normal force N(x) and bending moment M(x)) in the concrete block along the xaxis. The differential equation describing normal stress s _{n}(x) in the perpendicular direction to the lower surface of a concrete beam is given by
The solution of eq. (7) can be found as follows
with The constants D1, D2 can be determined by using the proper boundary conditions.
The distribution of the normal stress s _{n}(x) along the xaxis obtained from analytical solution for the identical example solved before is shown in Figure 3.
2 Experimental resultsAnchorage blocks of dimension 150/150/600 mm were prepared from concrete of class B15B25 according to the Czech standard ÄSN 73 1201 (1986). The producer and sponsor of the research work were Prefa Brno, Prefa TovaÄov and SIKA CZ. The physical and mechanical properties of concrete specimens (Young modulus, tensile and stress strength) were determined by nondestructive methods before the beginning of the tests. The CFRP strips of crosssectional dimension 50/1,2 mm and YoungÂ´s modulus 155 GPa was bonded to the prepared surface of different anchorage lengths  150, 225 to 300 mm (see Figure.3). The aim of the tests was to determine the influence of anchorage length and size of the cross force (acting on the anchorage zone) on the ultimate axis force of the strip. The resistance tensionmeters were glued to the strips, the deformation along the length of anchorage was measured with videoextensionmeter. Scheme of the anchorage zones and position of the measuring points are shown in Figure 4.
Arrangement of the test (the test setup and applied apparatus) is shown in Figure 5. Figure 5a represents anchoring without stirrup (without acting cross force on the anchorage area), Figure 5b demonstrates anchoring with stirrup without prestressing and Figure 5c illustrates anchoring with prestressed stirrups.
The results of the test with zero cross force acting on the bonded strip (alternative according Figure 5a anchoring without stirrup) of the glued length 150 mm is shown in Figure 6. The actual length of the anchorage is in this case smaller than the necessary anchorage length. With higher length of the anchorage it is possible to achieve higher axial force in the strip.
Comparison of the strip strain between analytical results and experimental tests at small tension normal force of the strip for the bonded length 150 mm is shown in Figure 7.
Fig. 8 shows strain rise of CFRP strip at measuring points throughout whole course loading on the specimens with glued length 225 mm.
3 ConclusionsThe comparison of the theoretical and measured results of stress and strain at the anchorage areas demonstrates good accordance at the linear area of behaviour. The theoretically derived design equations can be used for anchorage of nonprestressed and prestressed CFRP strips. AcknowledgementThis contribution was prepared within the scientificresearch work of the Project FAST VUT in Brno, CEZ 322/98 "Theory, Reliability and Damage of Statically and Dynamically Loaded Structures" and Czech grant agency GACR 103/02/0749 "Modern Methods of Strengthening Conrete and Masonry Structures and Optimision of Design". The cosponsors of described work were Prefa Brno and Tovacov and SIKA CZ. References

