A REVIEW OF NDT IN CIVIL ENGINEERING ON THE INTERNET
NDT Internet Publishing, Herford, Germany.
Email: email@example.com, Web: http://www.ndt.net
- International Symposium on NDT Contribution to|
the Infrastructure Safety Systems, 1999 NOV 22-26 Torres,
published by UFSM, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil
The Internet plays an important role for all fields of NDT. This paper reviews the highlights in the field of NDT to the infrastructure in particularly information, which is provided by the NDTnet Website. NDTnet, the Online Journal of Nondestructive Testing & Ultrasonics (NDTnet), the first full text NDT Journal on the Internet is a comprehensive database. Content of the 1995 and 1997 International Symposium on Nondestructive Testing in Civil Engineering (NDT-CE) as well as other papers from individual authors are described in this paper. Articles of the Impact-Echo Method are showing clear how a discussion forum serves this new structure for global interaction for worldwide users. In NDTnet's May 1999 issue the Impact-Echo topic was a dispute between experts of this field. The Virtual Library offers many references in the field of NDT-CE. This service is backed by an NDT Internet Crawler! Every day, a robot combs cyberspace, building the index for this NDT Internet Search Engine.
NDT-CE RESOURCES at NDTnet
The use of the NDTnet Server search is the best way to find major publications in the field of NDT-CE. As usual search tools offered at all big Internet databases and also NDTnet offers a simple free-text search. The search result may list articles accordingly to the entered search term. However, most important articles may be covered by to much search results just containing a word, e.g. "concrete". For that reason a structured search is provided at NDTnet as so-called Power Search, thus with a mouse click you can list all mayor articles in the field of NDT-CE. The search listed the following articles at NDTnet by September 1999:
Automated Impact-Echo: 2- and 3-D Imaging of Concrete Elements. C. Colla, G. Schneider, J. Wöstmann, H. Wiggenhauser (http://www.ndt.net/article/v04n05/plakat22/plakat22.htm)
- Combined NDT for system assurance in railway construction: Impact Echo, Ultrasonic and Radar techniques. C. Colla, B. Milman, J. Wöstmann, F. Mielentz, J. Henschen, H. Wiggenhauser (http://www.ndt.net/article/v04n05/plakat5/plakat5.htm)
- Ultrasonic Testing of Concrete with Fast Imaging Pulse-Echo-Technique. Dipl.-Phys. Frithjof Wollbold, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jürgen Neisecke (http://www.ndt.net/article/ecndt98/ut/468/468.htm)
- Objective Interpretation of Ultrasonic Concrete Image. R. Jansohn, M. Schickert (http://www.ndt.net/article/ecndt98/civil/130/130.htm)
- Assessment of The Deterioration of Concrete in NPP - Causes, Effects and Investigative Methods. Peter Shaw (http://www.ndt.net/article/0298/shaw/shaw.htm)
- The Impact-Echo Method. Mary J. Sansalone and William B. Streett (http://www.ndt.net/article/0298/streett/streett.htm)
- Simulation of Ultrasonic Flaw-detection in Concrete with a varying Percentage of Air Inclusions. Eberhard Burr, Norbert Gold, Christian U. Grosse, Hans-Wolf Reinhardt (http://www.ndt.net/article/0298/burr_si/burr_si.htm)
- Application of a modified SAFT-Algorithm on synthetic B-scans of coarse grained Materials. Eberhard Burr, Christian Große, Hans-W. Reinhardt (http://www.ndt.net/article/0298/burr_ap/burr_ap.htm)
- A Novel Technique For Advanced Ultrasonic Testing Of Concrete By Using Signal Conditioning Methods And A Scanning Laser Vibrometer. B. Koehler, G. Hentges, W. Mueller (http://www.ndt.net/article/koehler2/koehler2.htm)
- Ultrasonic Pulse Echo Technique For Concrete Elements Using Synthetic Aperture. Dr M Krause, Dr H Wiggenhauser (http://www.ndt.net/article/wsho0597/krause/krause.htm)
- NDT-CE Berlin 1995: A Concluding review. G. Schickert (http://www.ndt.net/article/civil497/gschic/gschic_1.htm)
- Non-Destructive Testing in Civil Engineering from Contractors Point of View. B. Haselwander, C. Flohrer (http://www.ndt.net/article/civil497/hocht1/hocht1.htm)
- Non-destructive Testing of Ground-Anchors of Bridge Structures. F. Langebrake, D. Fuchs, H. Nöller (http://www.ndt.net/article/civil497/dmt/dmt.htm)
- Ultrasonic crosshole testing on large concrete piles. H. Gross, W. Brameshuber (http://www.ndt.net/article/civil497/bilfing/bilfing.htm)
- Ultrasonic-impulse-echo-technique - advantages of an online-imaging technique for the inspection of concrete. Wollbold, J. Neisecke (http://www.ndt.net/article/civil497/neisec/neisec.htm)
- Towards SAFT-Imaging in Ultrasonic Inspection of Concrete. M. Schickert (http://www.ndt.net/article/civil497/mschic/mschic.htm)
- Detection of Thickness, Voids, Honeycombs and Tendon Ducts Utilising Ultrasonic ImpuIse-Echo-Technique. R. Jansohn, O. Kroggel, M. Ratmann (-)
18. Comparison of DIN/ISO 8047 (Entwurf) to Several Standards on Determination of Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity in Concrete. S. Popovics, K. Komlos, J. Popovics (http://www.ndt.net/article/civil497/iso8047/iso8047.htm)
- Combination of a Covermeter with a Radar System - an Improvement of Radar Application in Civil Engineering. Dipl.-Ing. Michael Pöpel, Dipl.-Ing. Claus Flohrer (http://www.ndt.net/article/civil497/hocht2/hocht2.htm)
- Comparison of Pulse-Echo-Methods for Testing Concrete. M. Krause, C. Maierhofer, H. Wiggenhauser, O. Bärmann, K Langenberg, R. Frielinghaus, J. Neisecke, F. Wollbold, M. Schickert (http://www.ndt.net/article/concrete/concrete.htm)
- The Resonance Method - Application Of A New Nondestructive Technique. Christian U. Grosse, Hans W. Reinhardt (http://www.ndt.net/article/grosse2/grosse2.htm)
- Setting and Hardening of Concret continuosly monitored by Elastic Waves. H.W. Reinhardt C.U. Grosse (http://www.ndt.net/article/grosse1/grosse1.htm)
Besides about 400 full-text articles NDTnet offers a comprehensive Abstract Database of totally about 3500 NDT abstracts in Sept 1999. Some examples are listed here.
Thanks to the collaboration with the organizer of the NDTISS'99 all abstracts have been distributed already two months before the conference, that shows how fast the Internet can provide information worldwide.
Every day, the NDTnet robot combs cyberspace, building a NDT Internet Search Engine. The robot's entire Homepage list and follow links depth are maintained manually, removing all non-relevant material, thus assuring that the search is specific to NDT.
One can search all server content which have been seen by this robot via one search query. Even for PDF files a full-text search is possible. For instant the CD-ROM of the German NDT-CE Symposium in 1999 Munich was offered at the DGZfP server, however no search was provided at this homepage. Since the NDTnet robot tracks the content of the DGZfP Homepage every day, a search was now possible in remote with the "global search form" at NDTnet. Some examples of mayor WWW library content in the field of NDT-CE are listed below.
We evaluation the Search Queries which have been performed through the NDTnet Library Global Search (Crawler). The top query of total 5666 queries was "concrete" with 87 requests!
Discussion Forums are a great advantage of the Internet. NDTnet maximizes opportunities for users to meet and expand their networks of professional contacts. Technical communities form newsgroups to communicate various announcements, inquiries, etc. Usually, a specific question is posted and then answered by newsgroup readers within a few hours. The NDT newsgroup was chartered in 1995, "sci.technique.testing.nondestructive", and about 2 to 3 messages are posted daily. This newsgroup does not allow advertising but nevertheless banal,
repetitious advertising is always a big part of the posts. The users of the newsgroup are more or less anonymous, this make discussion often very difficult.
With the disadvantages of the newsgroups in mind, NDTnet operates an own Web Page based Forum, moderated by Rolf Diederichs. Somehow it is an "Ask The Experts Forum" for Discussions on NDTnet Articles and other NDT topics. Furthermore a "profile" icon in the forum in an attempt to compensate for the lack of face to face contact in cyberspace.
The NDTnet issue February 1998 focused on UT and NDT in Civil Engineering, especially in testing of concrete. As usual, this was the focus of the monthly forum. One article related to NDT for concrete was "The Impact-Echo Method" by Mary J. Sansalon and William B. Streett. In conjunction with this article Mr. Streett served as a coordinator for comments on concrete for the February 1998 Forum of NDTnet. He was a Virtual Session Chairman. A lively discussion on the impact echo technique took place. You could read a lot of criticism by German experts of the BAM Berlin. In May 1999 the Impact Echo topic was again a dispute between experts of this field. Mr. William B. Street expressed strong objections against the following article: Automated Impact-Echo: 2- and 3-D Imaging of Concrete Elements. C. Colla, G. Schneider, J. Wöstmann, H. Wiggenhauser (http://www.ndt.net/article/v04n05/plakat22/plakat22.htm).
Part of Mr. Street message: "The article by Colla, et al. is filled with so much misinformation that one hardly knows where to begin. By ignoring a very large body of published work on impact-echo, the authors have failed to understand many fundamental aspects of the physics of the method, and they have drawn conclusions that are unwarranted and unsupported. Instead of taking the time to learn what is already known about impact-echo, they have devoted time to the production of "pseudo 3-D re-elaborations" of impact-echo signals which they have not correctly interpreted. " (read the complete message at http://www.ndt.net/wshop/forum/messages/821.htm)
Camilla Colla in her reply: "In the lengthy contribution by W. Street we found actually nothing that substanciates the personal opinions and quick remarks expressed by the contributer and outlined in the 2nd and 3rd paragraphs. A few comments to the points raised in the remaining part:" (read the complete message at http://www.ndt.net/wshop/forum/messages/835.htm
Another example how NDTnet, the Internet, serves as new information democracy was clearly visible after the train accident June 3. 1998 in Germany in that 100 people died. When NDTnet noticed the cover politics of the Deutsche Bahn which was backed by many TV channels, NDTnet coverage the train accident in its June 1998 issue. To get the trues even more public Rolf Diederichs agreed an interview with Focus-TV, explaining the necessary of NDT to assure safety and reliability. The DB was aware that rail wheels of this type should be tested with ultrasound every 2-3 days, the implementation of such a system was not pursued aggressively enough. Even though the necessity for more stringent testing was known, there seemed to be no sense of urgency to do anything about it, although state of the art equipment and technology were available.
Also in the NDTnet Forum experts used the opportunity to discuss better solutions in testing of railway wheels. Of course the "old" media and structures disliked the role that NDTnet played in this story. Criticism by DGZfP and other involved institutions came up promptly and punishment of this private press followed.
In its reporting of news, and its editorial content, NDTnet is and will continue to be, independent. NDTnet's purpose is to make information available, not to protect any company or organization from criticism, not to try to cover up errors, our own, or those of others.
The NDTnet Journal with its NDT online Exhibition offer all the Services companies need for efficient, inexpensive, worldwide Internet Marketing of NDT Product. Advertising on NDTnet is more than just Publishing a Piece of Paper. An Ad on NDTnet, the leading NDT Internet publisher, can be a much better value than the same Ad published via "Old Media". To begin with, you start off with a large, targeted audience. Just as print magazines have circulation figures, an Internet magazine can provide you with statistics of their " hits" and unique hosts. For example, during the month of October, 1998, over 12 000 users loaded about 300 000 files.
The NDTnet exhibition offers keyword search, fast feedback, and other features. The user can click on a icon "More information on this exhibitor" and access a database of all online publications (articles, news) the exhibitor has published on NDTnet. Our own Internet Crawler making Exhibitors' Homepages visible! Every day, our robot combs cyberspace, building the index for this NDT Internet Search Engine. We use the robot in the exhibition too. Since we index all exhibitors' remote pages (homepages), we can offer a full-text search for the selected homepage. Exhibitors' products are just a mouse click away. NDTnet disseminates your product information quickly and delivers visibly to a wide audience. We put you right on your customer's desktop, which is where you want to be when they make important purchase decisions!
/DB:Article /SO:NDTISS /AU:Diederichs_R /CN:DE /CT:NDT /CT:Internet /CT:civil /ED:2000-02