NDT.net - April 2000, Vol. 5 No. 04

An overview TOFD method and its Mathematical Model

Shyamal Mondal (Research student)
Dr. T. Sattar (Supervisor)
Corresponding Author Contact:
Email: mondals@sbu.ac.uk




Basic principle of TOFD

Mathematical Model

The advantages of TOFD

The disadvantages of TOFD

TOFD application

Comparison Automated and Manual TOFD


  1. Dr. Maurice Silk, " The potential of scattered or diffracted ultrasound in the determination of crack depth", Research techniques in NDT, vol 3, June 1975.
  2. Verkooijen,J. "TOFD used to replace radiography" , INSIGHT, vol. 37(6), p 433-35, June 1995.
  3. Dr. A. Khalid , NDT markets: A brief review . NDT an Eastern-Western European Perspective, September 1998, page 16-19.
  4. The European TOFD standard draft ENV 583-6 and The British TOFD standard BS 7706 , 1993
  5. Shaun Lawson, Ultrasonic testing and image processing for in progress weld inspection, Ultrasonic testing online Journal April 1996.
  6. http://www.structint.com/inspection/tofd.html
  7. N. Trimborn ; The TOFD technique, NDTnet, September 1997, vol-2, No. 9.
  8. TOFD ultrasonic technique applied to inservice inspection to evaluate damages and life extension-L.H Besbee Structural Integrity -U.S.A
  9. INSIGHT vol 38 no.1 January 1996, "Estimates of the probability of detection of flaws in TOFD" by M.G. Silk.
  10. NDTnet-september 1997, vol 2 no.9, Bill Browne, TOFD-its limitations.
  11. NDTnet-september 1997, vol 2 no.9, Shaun Lawson, "High temperature TOFD scanning".
  12. M.G.Silk, B.H. Lidington " The potential of scattered or diffracted ultrasound in the determination of crack depth." NDT Journal, June 1975.
  13. INSIGHT vol.38 No.8 August 1996, p.549.
  14. INSIGHT vol.37 No.8 August 1995, p.581.
  15. INSIGHT vol.38 No.6 June 1996, p.391.
  16. http://galileo.mech.surrey.ac.uk/Activities/NDT/tofd.html
  17. NDTnet , January 1998, vol 4 No. 1. "The panel discussion of the Ultrasonic Session III".
  18. Hislop, J.P., " Flaw size evaluation in immersed ultrasonic testing." NDT vol.2, 1969 page 183.
  19. Krautkramer, J. " Determination of the size defects by the ultrsonic impulse method." British Journal Appl. Physic 10 , 1959 , page 240.
  20. Bottcher,B., Schulz, E. " A new method of crack determination in ultrasonic material testing". Proc 7th International Conference on NDT, Warsaw, 1973.
  21. Silk M. " The potential of scattered or diffracted ultrasound in the determination of crack depth."NDT No. 8, 1975 page 146.
  22. Di Giacomo, Crisci, J.R. " An ultrasound method for measuring crack depth in structural weldments. Material evaluations 30, 1970, Page 189.
  23. J.P. Charles "Engineering applications of ultrasonic TOFD", Research studies press, 1989.
  24. http://www.ndt.net/abstract/tofd0997.htm . 75 TOFD Abstracts were delivered by literature services.

© NDT.net - info@ndt.net |Top|

/DB:Article /AU:Mondal_S /AU:Sattar_T /CN:UK /CT:UT /CT:sizing /CT:TOFD /CT:weld /ED:2000-04