NDT.net - September 2000, Vol. 5 No. 09

Nondestructive Material Testing with Ultrasonics
- Introduction to the Basic Principles -

Michael Berke
TABLE OF CONTENTS
    Introduction
1. Why use ultrasonics for nondestructive material testing?
2. Ultrasonic testing tasks
3. Detection of discontinuities
4. Method of testing and instrument technology
4.1 The ultrasonic flaw detector
4.2 Near resolution
4.3 The probe
4.4 Refraction and mode conversion
4.5 Characteristics of angle-beam probes
4.6 The TR probe
5. Locating discontinuities
5.1 Calibration of the instrument
5.1.1 Calibration with a straight-beam probe
5.1.2 Calibration with a TR probe
5.1.3 Calibration with an angel-beam probe
5.1.4 Locating reflectors with an angle-beam probe
6. Evaluation of discontinuities
6.1 Scanning method
6.2 Evaluation of small discontinuities: The DGS method
6.3 Sound attenuation
6.4 The reference block method
6.4.1 Comparison of echo amplitudes
6.4.2 Distance amplitude curve
7. Documentation
8. Diagnosis of indications (outlook)
    Reference list
Corresponding Author Contact:
Email: mberke@krautkramer.de
Web: http://www.krautkramer.com

Introduction

1. Why use ultrasonics for nondestructive material testing?

2. Ultrasonic testing tasks

3. Detection of discontinuities


Fig. 10a Angle reflection effect

Fig. 10b Tandem testing: center zone

Fig. 10c Tamden testing: lower zone F

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