NDT.net - September 2000, Vol. 5 No. 09

Nondestructive Material Testing with Ultrasonics
- Introduction to the Basic Principles -

TABLE OF CONTENTS
    Introduction
1. Why use ultrasonics for nondestructive material testing?
2. Ultrasonic testing tasks
3. Detection of discontinuities
4. Method of testing and instrument technology <=
4.1 The ultrasonic flaw detector
4.2 Near resolution
4.3 The probe
4.4 Refraction and mode conversion
4.5 Characteristics of angle-beam probes
4.6 The TR probe
5. Locating discontinuities
6. Evaluation of discontinuities
7. Documentation
8. Diagnosis of indications (outlook)
    Reference list

4. Method of testing and instrument technology

Fig. 17a Beam spot at the 4th scale graduation Fig. 17b Beam spot at the 8th scale graduation Fig. 18 Backwall echo at the 8th scale graduation






Fig. 32c Refraction: 2nd critical angle, surface wave






Fig. 32d Total reflection
Fig. 33 Usable range for angle-beam probes in steel

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