|NDT.net - June 2002, Vol. 7 No.06|
This paper presents an overview of NDT at TWI and
European-sponsored NDT research projects being
undertaken at TWI. These include NDT projects recently
completed, currently underway or about to commence. The
paper also presents the total value of these projects and
routes to exploitation of the results.
TWI is one of Europe’s largest independent research and technology organisations. Based at Abington near Cambridge since 1946, TWI provides those in industry with technical support in welding, NDT and associated technologies. TWI has over 430 skilled staff and a turnover of £27 million. During the last decade, TWI has participated in over 40 European projects including Framework V, CSG and CRAFT projects. TWI employs a total of 35 qualifed NDT specialists and inspection engineers with considerable academic, research and industrial experiences.
NDT at TWI is spread across four business units as follows:
The combined turnover of these business units has been steadily increasing at an average of 30% per annum since 1996 and was £3.4 million in the year 2001.
TWI has the following NDT research equipment and facilities:
The total investment in NDT research equipment and facilities is estimated to be greater than £5 million. In addition, TWI will move into its new £22 million facility at Granta Park in South Cambridge.
|Table1: European sponsored NDT research projects at TWI|
Table 1 shows a summary of the European-sponsored NDT projects recently completed, currently underway or about to commence. The value of these European NDT research projects is more than £15 million, and £2.4 million of project work is being carried out at TWI.
The European NDT projects shown in Table 1 involve a total of
77 European companies and research providers including:
A significant number of the above organisations are involved in more than one NDT research project with TWI. The great potential for technology transfer and dissemination is obvious. Further collaborations are also facilitated by the relationships developed during the current projects.
A description of each project is given below.
3.1. The Development and Validation of Non-Destructive
Testing Techniques for Butt Fusion Joints in
Polyethylene (PE) Pipes.
Acronym: WINDEPP. Budget: £623,000
This project has recently been completed and has developed a butt fusion welding machine with an integral ultrasonic non- destructive examination (NDE) module, which has the potential for providing complete confidence in the long-term quality of each weld produced.
Even with good site practice, it is impossible to totally eliminate all possible flaws in butt fusion welds in polyethylene (PE) pipes. Such flaws could include airborne dust and sand, water, grease, air pockets and cold welds produced by deviations from set welding parameters. Consequently, there is a need to determine the existence of any flaws in the weld through NDE and to establish whether such flaws are likely to reduce the service life of the pipe system. Such information would eliminate the need for destructive testing of the welds which, in turn, would reduce costs and allow the quality of the actual installed PE pipe system to be determined.
The objectives of this project were:
|Fig 1: The prototype butt fusion welding machine manufactured as part of the project.||Fig 2: The prototype NDT module developed as part of this project showing a combined TOFD, tandem and creeping wave system.||Fig 3: The combined welding and NDT system.|
Results have shown that a combination of three different ultrasonic NDE techniques is capable of detecting planar faws down to 1 mm signifcant dimension and sand contamination at levels down to at least 3% by area, in butt fusion welds in PE pipes of diameters up to 315 mm outside diameter (OD). Neither of these types of faw can be detected reliably by visual examination or manual testing of the external weld bead.
The work has also shown that ultrasonic NDE cannot detect either fine particulate contamination or cold welds produced by non-standard welding conditions. However, fortunately, both of these types of flaw can be either detected or eliminated by other techniques. Fine particulate contamination can be detected using a manual bend-back test on the removed external weld bead, and conditions that produce cold welds should not be possible using an automatic butt fusion welding machine, with process control and monitoring.
The project has also determined the minimum size of planar flaw and minimum levels of fine and coarse particulate contamination that cause premature failure of butt fusion welds in PE pipes of 125 mm and 315 mm OD, using a combination of specimen and whole pipe tensile creep rupture tests on welds containing known sizes/levels of different flaws. This information, together with the combined automatic butt fusion welding machine/ultrasonic NDE system developed in this project, followed by examination of the removed external bead, should allow all possible flaws that are likely to occur in butt fusion welds in PE pipes in the field to be either detected or eliminated.
Although the work in this project used one particular grade of PE, welded using one particular welding procedure, the advantage of a combined TOFD, tandem and creeping wave system is that it should be applicable to any PE pipe material made using any welding procedure since, unlike some other ultrasonic systems, it does not rely on a specific shape or size of weld bead. Figure 1 shows the prototype butt fusion welding machine manufactured as part of the project. Figure 2 shows the prototype NDT module developed as part of this project. The final NDT module was manufactured by sponsor SME, Ultrasonic Sciences Ltd. Figure 3 shows the integrated welding and NDT system. This formed the main deliverable of the project.
|Coordinator:||TWI Ltd (UK)|
|Industrial partners:||Simplast Spa, Pelerma (Italy), ATEV SAS di A Guiffrida, Sicily (Italy), Joseph Sauron SA, Bondoufe (France), SGD Engineering Services Ltd., Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom), Ultrasonic Sciences Ltd., Hampshire (United Kingdom), Advantica Technologies Ltd, Loughborough (United Kingdom), Gaz de France, St. Denis Plaine (France), George Fischer Plastics Ltd., Huntingdon (United Kingdom), Health & Safety Executive, Bootle (United Kingdom), Sade C.G.T.H. Secteur Sud, Le Plessis-Robinson (United Kingdom), Solvay Polyolefns EEEurope – Belgium SA, Brussels (Belgium) and Conzorzio Catania Richerche, Catania (Italy).|
3.2. Development of a Robotic System for the
Inspection of Aircraft Wings and Fuselage.
Acronym: ROBAIR. Budget: £1.23 million
Regular and periodic non-destructive testing (NDT) is mandatory for civil airlines throughout the world. Most inspection is currently carried out manually, such that operator fatigue can lead to mistakes. Increasingly, airlines require a hard copy of inspection results to eliminate operator subjectivity. Furthermore, the requirement for 100% inspection of vital structural features is becoming more commonplace and the slow rate of manual inspection is therefore prohibitively expensive. The cost of NDT is increased further where X-ray inspection is used, since components to be inspected must be removed from the aircraft. The objective of this programme is to develop a robotic inspection system, which will walk over large areas of an aircraft structure, carrying out automatic data collection and interpretation to identify all structural faws, without the need to dismantle components.
As well as using conventional NDT sensors, the project involves development in the following technologies; acoustic camera, phased arrays, thermography, dry contact ultrasound and eddy currents. It is anticipated that the prototype system to be developed will be commercialised soon after project completion.
The technical objective is to develop a robotic NDT inspection system capable of rapid automatic scanning of large and complex structures. This will be achieved by developing novel NDT techniques for aircraft inspection and deploying these techniques using a robotic system.
|Fig 4a: view on aircraft fuselage||Fig 4b: Close up schematic of robotic system on wing|
|Fig 4: Schematic of Robotic Inspection System for Aircraft Inspection|
Description of work
The multi-tasking robotic NDT system for aircraft inspection (see Figure 4) is being developed by the consortium in six work packages (WPs):
|Fig 5: Acoustic camera to be utilised for inspection of composites on aircraft. Courtesy of NDT Consultants Ltd and Imperium Inc.||Fig 7: Fastener inspection using phased arrays at TWI. Wing and fuselage samples provided by RAF.|
|Fig 6: Eddy current C-scan images of fasteners on an aircraft wing used to identify and then inspect rivets. Courtesy of Kontrol Technik.|
This project will deliver a prototype NDT robotic system for aircraft inspection that will be able to inspect large areas of aircraft wing and fuselage rapidly and without the subjectivity of an operator.
|Coordinator:||Sonatest plc (UK)|
|Industrial partners:||NDT Consultants Ltd (UK), Zenon Ltd (Greece), Kontrol Technik (Germany) and Horton Levi (UK).|
|Research partners:||TWI Ltd (UK), Frontier Systems (Greece), South Bank University (UK) and Technical University of Sofa (Bulgaria).|
|End User Panel:||RAF (UK), British Airways (UK) and British Aerospace (UK).|
3.3. Development of Novel Non-Destructive Testing
Techniques and Integrated In-line Process
Monitoring for Robotic and Flexible Friction Stir
Acronym: QUALISTIR. Budget: £1.24 million
A new ‘environmentally friendly’ welding technology invented by TWI and called Friction Stir Welding (FSW) has recently emerged as a very important process for welding of high-strength aluminium alloys (previously unweldable and important to the aerospace and automotive industry). FSW is now also beginning to make an impact in other materials.
Common weld flaws in fusion or other welds, such as porosity, lack of penetration or fusion can be detected by conventional NDT methods. As for all welding processes, the FSW process produces specific flaw types of its own. For example, at the root of an improperly welded friction stir weld, a so-called ‘kissing bond’ can be created. That is, at the weld root a very short length of the weld interface, as small as 30 to 50 micrometers, may be in intimate contact but without true metallurgical bonding. Even this small flaw can drastically reduce mechanical properties. Currently no commercial NDT instrumentation exists that has been proven to detect kissing bonds. Current methods of inspection thus include:
The following technical limitations are therefore hampering an
even more widespread use of FSW:
The technical objectives of the above project are to develop:
Description of work
A novel robotic and fexible FSW system, integrated with NDT and in-process monitoring, suitable for welding complex 3D geometries will be developed (by the consortium) in six work package (WPs):
Fig 8: A general assembly drawing of the multi-tasking FSW
robot system (showing the NDT and in-process monitoring
|Fig 9: Tricept 805 Friction Stir Welding robot to be utilised for welding and NDT. Courtesy of GKSS||Fig 10: The robot ‘end effector ’ to be integrated with the phased array sensors and system.|
Research sub-contractors, who are leaders in NDT, in-process control and monitoring and friction stir welding will execute the technical research tasks. The SMEs consisting of NDT companies, probe/sensor manufacturers, process automation and control, and manufacturers of friction stir machines and robots will develop NDT and monitoring systems and integrate them into the friction stir robots and machines.
|Fig 11: Phased array testing of friction stir welds at TWI.||Fig 12: Lack of root penetration flaw in friction stir weld. Courtesy of R/D Tech.|
The project plans to deliver a customised robot and a customised FSW machine, each will incorporate Phased Array NDT and in-process monitoring modules for quality control.
Figure 8 shows a schematic of the final system. Figure 11 shows phased array testing of friction stir welds (FSWs) at TWI. Figure 12 shows NDT of friction stir welds by RD-Tech.
|Lead and coordinator:||R/D Tech (France)|
|Industrial partners:||Vermon (France), ISOTEST (Italy) and Neos Robotics (Sweden).|
|Research performers:||TWI (UK), GKSS (Germany) and Technical University of Sofa (Bulgaria).|
|End User Panel:||Airbus and other aerospace companies. These companies represent the frst potential customers of the SMEs in the project.|
3.4 Train-Mounted Sensors and Systems for the
Inspection of Rails.
Acronym: RAIL-INSPECT. Budget: £1 million
The last three decades have seen continuous increases in train traffic, train speeds and tonnage carried on European rail networks. These have put an increasing amount of strain on the rail tracks. In the last few years an increase in accidents due to broken or cracked rails has occurred in Europe. This has resulted in loss of life, severe delays in services and loss of revenue for the train operators. The public confdence in this economical and environmentally friendly mode of transport has also reduced as a result of the above.
The major technical objectives of this project are to:
Description of work
The project commenced on the 1st of January 2002. The multi- NDT system (to be carried by a test train) for rail inspection is being developed in seven work packages (WPs):
Fig 13: Flaw types in rail head that can cause broken rails
(A) Head surface flaws. These usually prevent ultrasonic techniques in inspecting areas under these flaws.
(B) Squat flaws running below and parallel to the rail surface.
(C) Roughness of rail head due to missing material (caused by breaking/slipping wheels) prevents ultrasonic inspection.
(D) Vertical longitudinal split flaws.
(E) Star cracks at bolt holes.
(F) Diagonal crack in web of rail.
(G) Horizontal flaws.
(H) Flaws in thermit welds eg. lack of fusion and other weld cracks.
(I) The gauge corner crack. This is difficult to detect and can become a cause of rail breakage that result in derailments.
(J) Bolt holes (although not flaws) can provide initiation points for star cracks (see e)..
(a) Shows a star crack starting from a bolt hole
(b) A broken rail caused by a gauge corner crack (see I in Figure 13)
(c) A major rail head crack.
Fig 14: Pictures of rail faws Key:
|Fig 15: A test train. The intended position of the scanner module is shown in green.|
The fnal result will be a feld prototype one-stop inspection system operating on-board test trains of National rail companies in Europe and throughout the world. This will establish automation of inspection tasks that have been performed previously either with limited automation or in most cases entirely manually. The prototype system will be designed to be easily integrated onto any European test train. Figure 15 shows a schematic the placement of the final system.
|Lead and coordinator:||Sonatest plc (UK)|
|Industrial partners:||Kontrol Technik (Germany), Computerised Information Technology (UK), Imasonic (France), Zenon (Greece) and Technitest (Spain).|
|Research performers:||TWI (UK) and Technical University of Sofa (Bulgaria).|
|End User Panel:||European rail companies have been approached to join the end user panel in due course.|
3.5 Manufacturing and Modelling of Fabricated
Acronym: MMFSC. Budget: £5.84 million
The European aerospace industry is one of the Community’s leading industrial strengths, competing successfully in world markets and ensuring the employment of some hundred thousand personnel across Member States. The proposed programme seeks to enable a step-change in the process of design and manufacture of aero- engine structures, leading to signifcant reductions in lead time, materials use, and cost.
Deliverable of Project
The programme will deliver:
NDT is a small part of this project and the objectives of the work relevant to TWI’s NDT activities, is to improve weld quality and productivity through NDT. This will be achieved by the development of a real time weld monitoring system (partly based on an ultrasonic phased array system) that will enable welding parameters to be monitored and controlled automatically and continuously. The deliverables will be procedures and techniques for obtaining welded joints that are free from signifcant faws and geometrically accurate. This will enable aero-engine components to be manufactured more cost-effectively.
The consortium partners are listed below:
Rolls-Royce plc, Ferroday Limited, Brunel University, Fundacion ROBOTIKER, The Queen’s University of Belfast, The University of Nottingham, University of Southampton, Werkzeugmaschinenlabor der RWTH – Aachen, Volvo Aero Corporation AB, Luleו University of Technology, Fundacion Tekniker, Motoren- und Turbinen-Union GmbH, Heriot-Watt University, Universidad de Cantabria, The Welding Institute (TWI Ltd), CLFA Groupment d’Etude et de Recherche pour les Applications Industriels des Laser de Puissance (GERAILP), Industria de Turbo Propulsores, S.A, Sociיtי Nationale d’ֹtude et de Construction de Moteurs d’Aviation and Defence Evaluation and Research Agency.
3.6. Production Line Integrated Sensor System for
Porosity Quality Control of Magnesium Castings.
Acronym: MAGCAST. Budget: £1.24 million
Magnesium (Mg) castings have tremendous potential in a number of industries, for example, aerospace, automotive and telecommunications, owing to their combination of strength and light weight. However, their use is being hindered by the diffculty of casting Mg components of consistent acceptable quality with respect to internal porosity.
Traditionally, hot chamber high-pressure casting has been used for producing Mg parts of complex shapes to very high tolerances. This process has always suffered from the problem of internal porosity in the casting. Two forms of porosity are common, shrinkage porosity and gas porosity. Porosity is a problem as it can lead to structural failure in safety critical parts (for example steering column housings in cars and aerospace components for example airframe structures, engine parts, gear boxes, and fuel hydraulic components etc).
The NDT methods currently used for Mg applications are visual
and dye-penetrant inspection. These methods are only effective for
the detection of surface flaws. Therefore, X-ray film radiography
has been used for the detection of internal porosity in aluminium
castings. However, this method has the following limitations:
The technical objectives of the projects are the development of:
Description of work
The real-time X-ray in-line inspection system for magnesium castings will be developed in fve work packages commencing March 2002:
The main innovations of the project will be:
The project will deliver a fully tested real-time and digital X-ray prototype system for the in-line inspection of magnesium castings. It will provide an input for the real-time control of the casting process.
The Project Consortium
|Lead and coordinator:||Computerised Information Technology Ltd (UK)|
|Industrial partners:||Balteau NDT (Belgium), UK Racing Castings Ltd (UK), Simage (Finland) and Spree Engineering Ltd (UK)|
|Research performers:||TWI (UK), CEA LETI (France) and Technical University of Sofa (Bulgaria).|
3.7. Development of a Robotic System for the
Inspection of Large Steel and Aluminium Plates
in Industrial Plants.
Acronym: ROBOT INSPECTOR. Budget: 1.24 million
Steel and aluminium plates are inspected extensively during manufacture, fabrication into welded structures and in-service when subject to damage from corrosion or fatigue. There is a need for automated inspection systems that can be applied throughout the product life cycle and which are versatile, portable and able to perform in hazardous environments with little human intervention.
The major technical objective of this project is to develop a robotic NDT inspection system for large plates, capable of detecting:
Description of work
The development of the autonomous robot inspection tool for plates and welded plate joints will be conducted in seven work packages to commence in March 2002:
Deliverable of project
A prototype robot scanner and vehicle will be developed for the remote inspection of large metallic plates as in:
|Lead and coordinator:||Zenon Ltd (Greece)|
|Industrial partners:||Sonatest plc (UK), Isotest (Italy), Tecnitest (Spain), Spree Engineering and Testing (UK) and Estampaciones Mayo S.A.E. (Spain).|
|Research performers:||TWI (UK), Noemon Ltd (Greece) and Technical University of Sofa (Bulgaria).|
3.8. Smart Structural Diagnostics using Piezo-
Generated Elastics Waves.
Acronym: PIEZODIAGNOSTICS. Budget: £1.8 million
The proposed three-year R&D project aims to develop a new structural diagnostics environment based on piezo-generated wave propagation with the following key features:
The vision for the future is to fully integrate localised monitoring with remote assessment via tele-communications technology. One can envisage real-time decision-making on infrastructure integrity over the Internet. The expected exploitation time is medium term (five years).
The objectives of the proposed project include:
|Fig 16: A schematic of the proposed robotic inspection system carrying out inspection inside an oil storage tank. The annular plate and the foor plate welds will be inspected by the robot|
|Fig 17: TWI patent income versus expenditure.|
|Fig 18: Teletest instrument.|
Description of work
The project workplan is structured around six technical work packages and began in February 2002:
The Project Consortium
|Coordinator:||CEGELEC NDT (France)|
|Industrial partners:||TWI Ltd (UK), WS Atkins Consultants Ltd (UK), CEDRAT RECHERCHE SA (France), Centrum Diagnostyki Rurociagow i Aparatury SP Z O.O (Poland), International Center for Numerical Methods in Engineering (Spain), Intitute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences (Poland), Ecole Centrale de Lyon and Alstom CERG (France).|
3.9. Effective Application of TOFD Method for Weld
Inspection at the Manufacturing Stage of Pressure
Acronym: TOFDPROOF. Budget: 1.08 million
TOFDPROOF project aims at producing a coherent package of EU agreed documents (procedures for applying TOFD with related acceptance criteria and recommendations for training and certifcation) based on a Round Robin test performed on welded specimens and validated through site trials.
The project is focused on all aspects allowing the effective application of the TOFD as a stand-alone method for the weld inspection during manufacture of pressure equipment. Technological, regulatory, human factors are considered.
The performance of TOFD will be compared with conventional NDT as defined by European standards for testing pressure vessels at the manufacturing stage. This evaluation will be carried out by means of a Round Robin test on welded specimens. All the results generated by this Round Robin exercise will be stored in a database set up on a website. Results will be in a suitable form for implementation in CEN standards and dissemination among NDT specialists. Specific tools will be developed in order to enable a quick and reliable comparison of the TOFD results with those obtained by conventional NDT. This comparison will normally be performed using Probability of Detection (POD) curves and statistical analysis tools. At the same time, optimised TOFD procedures and specific related acceptance criteria will be developed.
|Fig 20: 24" (610 mm) diameter tool mounted on an insulated road crossing. The flaw detector unit is also visible. (Photo courtesy ARCO Alaska Inc).|
Guidelines for training and certification will be written and distributed to the NDT society, the relevant standardisation CEN technical committees and the EU companies dealing with weld inspection. TOFD with the corresponding acceptance criteria will then be applied on site on welded components in order to demonstrate the technical efficiency and cost competitiveness compared with conventional NDT. The website will allow general feedback from any EU citizens on the proposals resulting from the project.
|Fig 19: Transducer mounting tool for 4’ nominal bore (114 mm diameter) pipe.|
TOFDPROOF will allow the manufacturer of pressure vessel to use TOFD as a stand-alone NDT technique for weld inspection, through the following objectives:
Recommendations for the training and certification of the operator will be provided and the assessment of the influence of the objectiveness of the inspector interpreting the results will be determined.
The project is expected to commence in March 2002.
|Coordinator:||Institut de Soudure|
|Industrial partners:||TWI Ltd, IS Service, Sonovation, Mitsui Babcock Technology Centre, Staatliche Materialprefungsanstalt (MPA) Stuttgart), Tecnatom SA, VTT, Instituto de Soldadura e Qualidade and TUV Suddeutschland Bau und Betrieb GmbH.|
4.1. Exploitation of TWI’s intellectual property
TWI exploits its intellectual property daily through the selling of know-how and expertise to member companies world-wide and participation in various funded research projects. TWI has a long history of developing new ideas and inventions, for example the CO2 laser, gas assisted laser cutting and CTOD (Crack Tip Opening Displacement Concept) were all invented at TWI and subsequently transferred to industry.
Prior to 1990, TWI did not actively exploit its generated and owned intellectual property, in fact TWI held patents that were costing more to maintain than they generated through licence income, refer to Figure 17. As a consequence, TWI began to develop an exploitation strategy by first learning how to protect, defend and exploit ideas through talking to similar organisations in the market, patent attorneys, licensing executives, and attending conference and work-shops on IP related issues. This is an on-going activity in TWI to ensure that the policies and strategies put forward for adoption align to our mission statement, to the market and to best practice within industry.
Due to TWI’s size and resources available, only commercially exploitable intellectual property is protected through patents and/or trademarks and a stage / gate procedure has been formalised to manage inventions. As a consequence of this, licence income has exceeded expenditure since 1996. TWI is currently progressing 28 inventions through the various stages of the stage / gate process.
4.2 Exploitation of intellectual property generated in
European-sponsored NDT research
The exploitation and dissemination of intellectual property generated in European-sponsored research is critical to the success of the projects run. TWI has experience of exploiting directly such intellectual property and of assisting organisations in the development of exploitation strategies for generated intellectual property under their control (as contractual conditions differ from programme to programme relating to the ownership and exploitation rights in place for generated intellectual property). This has taken many forms from a presentation of key considerations to the detailed plan for exploitation (including their impact on dissemination activities if patent protection is progressed) and assistance in determining licensing strategies.
Some examples of our activities in the exploitation and dissemination of European-sponsored projects are now presented.
Example 1. WINDEPP – The Development and Validation
of Non-Destructive Testing Techniques for Butt
Fusion Joints in Polyethylene (PE) Pipes
TWI co-ordinated the development of the partners’ exploitation plan and publication strategy adopted as the generated intellectual property was protected. Customers of the WINDEPP technology were involved in the project from the outset and provided valuable technical and commercial input. A prototype machine incorporating the NDT module was developed and trialed within the project and a close-to-market machine is currently being produced. The technology has been widely disseminated including its presentation at a variety of conferences.
Since the launch of this product in 1997; Plant Integrity Ltd has dramatically increased its turnover per year between the years 1997-2001. Plant Integrity’s success has led other European companies into this market. Plant Integrity and other European suppliers of this technology are making significant inroads into the USA and Japanese markets as well as in other world markets, making this a significant European success story.
Example 3. LINFRIC™ Low cost linear friction welding
The LINFRIC machine was developed in a CRAFT project, funded by the European Commission under the Framework IV programme, which was successfully completed in September 2001. The project aimed to develop a prototype hydraulic linear friction welding machine at a lower cost than those currently available on the market in order to make the technology more accessible to potential users.
TWI assisted the project partnership in the development of an exploitation strategy, which included obtaining the name ‘LINFRIC’ as a trademark which will be licensed by TWI to the project partnership. The prototype will reside for a period of time at TWI as the partnership agreed that it was the ideal location to promote the machine due to the large number of companies that visit TWI where they are introduced to new and novel developments in many fields.
The LINFRIC machine itself is being offered to the market by Blacks Equipment Ltd, Doncaster (United Kingdom) and Klaus Raiser GmbH, Eberdingen (Germany). Both were project partners in the above CRAFT project.
The above-mentioned European funded NDT research projects at
TWI have the following common themes:
The achievement of the goals of these European projects
comprising of some 77 European companies will in a small
way contribute to Europe’s competitiveness in NDT against USA
and Japan. The successful collaborations in the above projects
have facilitated the application of new proposals to the European
Commission. The NDT Section at TWI is currently applying for the
following 3 CRAFT projects:
It is important to note that the EC CRAFT projects are targeted towards SMEs and any Intellectual Property developed through these projects remains the property of the SMEs.
For technical enquiries contact: Dr Aamir Khalid, Manager, NDT Technology Section, Structural Integrity, TWI, Granta Park, Great Abington, Cambridge, CB1 6AL UK. Tel: 00 44 (0) 1223 891162; Fax: 00 44 (0) 1223 890689; E-mail: email@example.com
For enquiries regarding commercialisation and exploitation, contact:
Ms Laura Barrett, Intellectual property, TWI, Granta Park, Great Abington, Cambridge, CB1 6AL UK. Tel: 00 44 (0) 1223 891162; Fax: 00 44 (0) 1223 890689; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
|Dr A Khalid is the manager of the NDT Technology Section at TWI Ltd.He has a BSc(Hons)from University College London,MSc in NDT from Brunel University,PhD in NDT from Cranfield University and an MBA from South Bank University.|
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