NDT.net - November 2002, Vol. 7 No.11


N. Mohamed Sutan,
Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak,
94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia
M. S. Jaafar and S. Hamdan
Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak,
94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia<
Corresponding Author Contact:
Email: msnorsuzailina@feng.unimas.my



Materials and methods:

Results and discussions



  1. (Bungey J.H., 1980),"The Validity of Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Testing In-place Concrete for Strength, "N.D.T.International IPC Press, December pp. 296-300.
  2. (Bungey J.H. 1982),"The Testing of Concrete in Structures," Surrey University Press pp. 35-59.
  3. BS 4408: pt.5, "Non-destructive Methods of Test for Concrete-Measurement of the velocity Ultrasonic Pulses in Concrete," British Standard Institution, London.
  4. "Non-destructive Testing of Concrete Structures," Proceeding of the Indo-US Workshop on NDT Indian Institute Uttar Pradesh, Roorkee, India, pp. 85 & 113, (1996).
  5. (Strurrup, V. R.; Vecchio, F. J.; and Caratin, H, 1984) "Pulse Velocity as a Measure of Concrete Compressive Strength, " In-Situ Non-Destructive Testing of Concrete, 82, American Concrete Institute, Detroit, pp. 201-227.
  6. (Sansalone, M.J. & Street, W.B, 1997):"Impact-Echo: Nondestructive evaluation of concrete and masonry", Bulbriers Press, Ithaca, N.Y., USA, ISBN No.: 0-96 12610-6-4.
  7. (Sansalone, M., and Carino, N.J., 1986) "Impact-Echo: A method for flaw Detection in Concrete Using Transient Stress Waves", NBSIR 86-3452, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Maryland, pp.222.
  8. (Sansalone, M., and Carino, N.J., 1998) "Laboratory and Field Study of Impact-Echo Method for Flaw Detection in Concrete", Non-destructive Testing of Concrete, Special Publication of the American Concrete Institute, pp.1-20,
  9. (Lin, Y., and Sansalone, M., 1992) "Detecting Flaws in Concrete Beams and Columns Using the Impact-Echo Method", Materials Journal of American Concrete Institute, 89, No. 4.
  10. Neville A.M, "Concrete Technology", Longman Group UK Limited, pp282, 631-633, (1987).
  11. Germann Instruments: "Operation and Maintenance Manual for DOCter Impact-Echo Testing, Version 3.0, (1999).
  12. ELE PUNDIT 6, Portable Ultrasonic Non-Destructive Digital Indicating Tester, Operating Manual
  13. (Sersale, R., Cioffi, R., Frigione. G. and Zenone, F., 1991) "Relationship between gypsum content, porosity and strength of cement", Cement and Concrete Research, 21, No.1, pp.120-126.

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