NDT.net - January 2003, Vol. 8 No.01


Norsuzailina Mohamed Sutan,
(To whom correspondent should be addressed)
Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak,
94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia
Email: msnorsuzailina@feng.unimas.my
Mohamad Saleh Jaafar
Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia,
43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Corresponding Author Contact:
Email: msnorsuzailina@feng.unimas.my



Materials and methods.

Results and discussions



  1. Bungey J.H.,"The Validity of Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Testing In-place Concrete for Strength, "N.D.T.International IPC Press, December pp. 296-300, (1980).
  2. Bungey J.H.,"The Testing of Concrete in Structures," Surrey University Press pp. 35-59, (1982).
  3. BS 4408: pt.5, "Non-destructive Methods of Test for Concrete-Measurement of the Ultrasonic Pulses Velocity in Concrete," British Standard Institution, London, (1970)
  4. ELE PUNDIT 6, Portable Ultrasonic Non-Destructive Digital Indicating Tester, Operating Manual.
  5. Germann Instruments: "Operation and Maintenance Manual for DOCter Impact-EchoTesting, Version 3.0, (1999).
  6. Lin, Y., and Sansalone, M., "Detecting Flaws in Concrete Beams and Columns Using the Impact-Echo Method", Materials Journal of American Concrete Institute, 89, No. 4, (1992).
  7. Neville A.M, "Concrete Technology", Longman Group UK Limited, pp282, 631-633, (1987).
  8. Sansalone, M., and Carino, N.J., "Impact-Echo: A method for flaw Detection in Concrete Using Transient Stress Waves", NBSIR 86-3452, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Maryland, pp.222 (1986).
  9. Sansalone, M.J. & Street, W.B.:"Impact-Echo: Nondestructive evaluation of concrete and masonry", Bulbriers Press, Ithaca, N.Y., USA, ISBN No.: 0-96 12610-6-4, (1997)
  10. Sansalone, M., and Carino, N.J., "Laboratory and Field Study of Impact-Echo Method for Flaw Detection in Concrete", Non-destructive Testing of Concrete, Special Publication of the American Concrete Institute, pp.1-20, (1998).
  11. Sersale, R., Cioffi, R., Frigione. G. and Zenone, F., "Relationship between gypsum content, porosity and strength of cement", Cement and Concrete Research, 21, No.1, pp.120-126, (1991).

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