·Table of Contents
·Methods and Instrumentation

Squirter, Roller Probe, and Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Transducer Techniques for Low Frequency Inspection of Advanced Composites Materials

Daniel J. Cotter, Thomas E. Michaels, Jennifer E. Michaels,
Daniel Kass, Matthew E. Stanton, Igor V. Kosenko, and Frederick H. C. Hotchkiss
Panametrics Incorporated, Waltham, MA 02453-3497











  1. D. J. Cotter, T. E. Michaels, J. E. Michaels, D. Kass, M. E. Stanton, I. V. Kosenko, and F. H. C. Hotchkiss, " Low-Frequency Ultrasonic Imaging of Composite Structures with Squirter-Based Water-Coupled and Air-Coupled Transducers", Proceedings of the 45th International SAMPE Symposium, SAMPE, May, 2000.
  2. M. G. Silk, Ultrasonic Transducers for Nondestructive Testing, Adam Hilger Ltd Publishers, 1984, pp. 9-12 and 149-150.
  3. J. Callerame, R. H. Tancrell, and D. T. Wilson, 1979 IEEE Cat. 79CH 1482-9SU(London: IEEE), pp. 407-411.
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  12. M. Deka, "Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Transducer for NDE", Proceedings 1987 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, Vol. 1, pp. 543-546, IEEE Cat. No. 87Ch2492-7, 1987.
  13. B. T. Khuri-Yakub, J.H. Kim, C-H. Chou, P. Parent, and G. S. Kino, " A New Design for Air Transducers, Proceedings 1988 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, Vol. 1, pp. 503-506, IEEE Cat. No. 88CH2578-3, 1988.
  14. J. D. Fox, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and G. S. Kino, "High-Frequency Acoustic Wave Measurements in Air," Proceedings 1983 Ultrasonics Symposium, Vol. 1, pp. 581-584, IEEE Cat. No. 83CH1947-1, 1983.
  15. J. D. Fox, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, and G. S. Kino, "Excitation and Detection of 8 MHz Acoustic Waves in Air, Proceedings 1984 Ultrasonics Symposium, Vol.1, pp. 475-479, IEEE Cat. No. 84Ch2112-1, 1984.
  16. US patent 5,287,331 Feb 15,1994, D.W. Schindel and D. A. Hutchins.
  17. J. O. Strycek and H. Loertscher, "Ultrasonic Air-Coupled Inspection of Advanced Material", NDT.net Vol. 4, No. 12, December 1999.
  18. J. Buckley and H. Loertscher, "Frequency Considerations in Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Inspection," Insight (Journal of The British Institute of Non-Destructive Testing), Vol. 41, No. 11, pp.696-699, 1999.
  19. Curlin Air Technical Note 2, "Acoustic Impedance and Airborne Ultrasound," Curlin Air Publisher, Huntington Beach, CA, December 1, 1998.
  20. L. C. Lynnworth, T. H. Nguyen, C. D. Smart, and O A. Khrakovsky, "Acoustically Isolated Paired Air Transducers for 50-, 100-, 200-, or 500-kHz Applications," IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, Vol. 44, No. 5, pp.1087-1100, 1997.
  21. J. O. Strycek, W. A. Grandia, and H. Loertscher, "Wave Modes Produced By Air Coupled Ultrasound," Present Application Workshop, NDT.net, Vol. 2, No. 5, May 1997.
  22. U. S. Patent No. 5,033,074, July 16, 1991, D.J. Cotter and W.D. Koenigsberg, "X-ray Collimator for Eliminating the Secondary Radiation and Shadow Anomaly from Microfocus Projection Radiographs".
  23. W. D. Koengisberg and D. J. Cotter, "On the Origin of Anomalous Shadows in Microfocus Projection Radiography," Proceedings 1990 Conference on NDE of Modern Ceramics, pp. 56-62, American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Columbus, OH 1990.
  24. P. M. Morse, Vibration and Sound, 2nd ed. Published by American Institute of Physics for the Acoustical Society of America, 1976, pp. 265-288.

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