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Quantitative Profiling of Internal Weld Contours through VideoimagescopyB.Venkatraman, V.Manoharan, T.Jayakumar and P.Kalyanasundaram
Metallurgy and Materials Group
Indira Gandhi Centre For Atomic Research
Kalpakkam - 603 102, India
Welding is an indispensable part of any industry. It is the most widely used method for the joining of metals. Though the science and technology of welding is more than 100 years old, weld continues to be the weak link with many failures occurring due to a variety of reasons. One of the most important properties of any completed weld is its external and internal contour. Use of improper setup, electrode, geometry and weld parameters can result in a variety of defects and imperfections. One of the imperfections that could occur due to improper internal shield gas flow and weld parameters is weld concavity and convexity.
It is a well known fact that excess reinforcement, convexity and concavity cause a change in the weld profile. Depending on the geometry of the weld, the presence of such convexity and concavity can result in concentration of stresses in and around the region. Under the presence of thermal, hydraulic and other stresses such regions are prone to creep-fatigue damage and have been the cause for many failures. These regions are also prone to corrosion due to stagnation of liquids. Thus codes of practice always place a upper limit on the maximum permissible values of convexity and concavity.
It is easy to determine the external convexity and concavity due to availability of access for replica based measurements. In the case of internal concavity and convexity, the technique of replica using dental compounds is quite difficult. Replication using silicon rubber compound and special hardware has been done by the authors for the reheater tubes. However, the cost of making one replica is of the order of US $ 750 thus making this a highly unviable solution for shopfloor inspection of all joints. This paper elucidates a simple but effective methodology based on vedioimagescopy adopted by the authors for quantitative evaluation of concavity and convexity in the tube to tubesheet welds.
In this experimental work, the Olympus videoimagescope model IVC-6 was used. This videoimagescope has a diameter of 6 mm and working length of 7 m. A variety of viewing optical adopters with varying fields of view are available which can be used depending on the nature and type of application. In the present experimental campaign, the forward viewing and side viewing optical adopters of field of view 80 degree were used. The light source used was ILV-2 with a 300 W xenon lamp. The unit is linked to IW-2 industrial video analyzer equipped with a built in hard disk for the storage of images. About 400 images can be stored. Each image can be tagged with characters for easy identification and further reference. The images can also be suitably enhanced through image processing functions such as contrast stretching, edge enhancement etc., provided in the system. Using the 3-D graphic measurement system, it is possible to measure accurately the length, width etc of any feature in the the images. The image data can be processed and pasted into documents/reports appropriately.
|Fig 1:Typical videoscope image of the wire placed longitudinally and circumferentially inside the tube [simulating convexity] for calibration|
For concavity measurement, notches and grooves of two different depths (0.35 mm and 0.25 mm) were made internally by electro discharge machining in a standard tube of OD 31.2 mm and ID 27.8 mm. The profile of the groove was then replicated using silicon rubber compound. The dimensions of groove were then measured from the replica using a profile projector having a measurement accuracy of + 5 microns. Fig.2 shows the typical replica of 0.35 mm groove.
|Fig 2: shows the typical replica of 0. 35 mm groove.|
Determination of groove depth was then carried out using videoimagescope also. The main problem in videoimagescope w.r.t concavity convavity is the location of the point of maximum depth. In the case of notches, the reflection from the sharp edge at the bottom made precise measurements possible. However, in the case of grooves, with smooth and slow increments in depth, this was very difficult. This problem was overcome using both the forward and side view adapters. Field of view of the adapters was first precisely determined. The side view adapter was used to precisely locate the edges and the central point of concavity based on the principle of triangulation. The forward view adapter was then used for measurement. The images were contrast stretched. If ro is the actual radius of the tube and r1 is the radius in the region of concavity, the actual concavity D C at any point is given by
D C = [r1 - r0]
The results of concavity measurements by replica and videoimage scope are summarized in Table - 1 below.
|Position||Tube 1 Replica Method|
|Tube 1 Videoimagescope|
|Tube 2 Replica Method |
|Tube 2 Videoimage scope |
|9 o clock||0.24||0.28||0.34||0.40|
|10 o clock||0.25||0.29||0.35||0.39|
|11 o clock||0.26||0.32||0.35||0.39|
|12 o clock||0.24||0.29||0.34||0.40|
|1 o clock||0.26||0.29||0.34||0.39|
|2 o clock||0.26||0.31||0.34||0.40|
|3 o clock||0.25||0.28||0.36||0.42|
|4 o clock||0.25||0.31||0.36||0.40|
|5 o clock||0.26||0.31||0.35||0.41|
|6 o clock||0.27||0.32||0.36||0.43|
|7 o clock||0.26||0.31||0.35||0.41|
|8 o clock||0.26 mm||0.32||0.35 mm||0.40|
|Table I: Measurement of concavity in calibration tubes Comparison of replica and videoimage scope|
The reheater of PFBR SG essentially consists of 170 joints (85 tubes welded on either side). The videoimage scope is inserted from the tubesheet side and accurately positioned using a fabricated guide tube. The welds were then profiled using the same methodology adopted for the calibration tubes. More than 100 joints of the reheater were examined by videoimagescopy. Fig.3 is the image of a good weld, while Figs.4 and 5 are images of convexity and concavity in two different weld joints. Some of the joints in which concavity or convexity exceeded the limit of 0. 2 mm were also examined by replica. Typical results of the examination are given in Table - II below.
|Sl. No.||Joint No.||Maximum Convexity||Maximum Concavity|
|1.||R3 H4 S153||0.32 mm||0.32 mm||-||-|
|2.||R 4 HI S 152||0.4 mm||0.41 mm||-||-|
|3.||R 4 H4 S153||0.48 mm||0.43 mm||-||-|
|4.||R 7 HI S 153||-||-||0.4 mm||0.44 mm|
|5.||R 7 HI S 152||0.4 mm||0.41 mm||-||-|
|6.||R7 H6 S 153 *||0.45 mm||0.44 mm||0.39 mm||0.36 mm|
|7.||R11 HI S152||0.4 mm||0.42 mm||-||-|
|8.||R13 HI S153||-||-||0.25 mm||0.3 mm|
|9.||R13 H6 S153||0.38 mm||0.37 mm||-||-|
|10.||R14 HI S153||-||-||0.4 mm||0.45 mm|
|11.||R16 HI S152||-||-||0.3 mm||0.35 mm|
|Table II: Typical Results on Actual Weld Joints|
|Fig 3: Videoimage of good weld.||Fig 4: Typical image of convexity detected in weld Joint. The convexity was 0.437 mm.|
|Fig 5: Typical weld concavity detected in one of the reheater joint. The concavity was measured to be 0.44 mm and hence weld was repaired.|
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