·Table of Contents
·Education, Training and Certification
CAMC/NDT, An Aerospace Sector for CAN/CGSB 48.9712-95David Ronson
Chairman of Canadian Maintenance Council NDI Trade Advisory Committee
In 1988, the Canadian aviation maintenance industry was facing a critical shortage of skilled personnel and a lack of standards for most occupations in this sector. As a result, and at the request of the Air Transport Association of Canada, a steering committee of thirty industry representatives was formed and a comprehensive human resources study commissioned with the financial assistance and expertise of Human Resources Development Canada (HRDC). This study, the first one ever completed on the industry, recommended actions on four fronts:
In addition to the above, the study recommended that the industry create a sector council in order to address these challenges. In the fall of 1991, the Canadian Aviation Maintenance Council (CAMC) was established to coordinate future human resource planning. It was incorporated as a none-profit organization.
The member organizations are:
The sections of the industry it includes are:
The mission of the Canadian Aviation Maintenance Council is, "To develop a framework for, and to facilitate the implementation of, a human resource strategy for the aviation maintenance industry in Canada."
The mission will be accomplished by achieving the following goals:
The first step in development of any curriculum is that of an occupational analysis. The occupations selected for development of an occupational analysis are:
One of the occupations identified above is the focus of this paper - "Aviation Nondestructive Inspection Technician".
The first step in the development of any curriculum is that of an Occupational Analysis. The draft of the NDI Occupational Analysis was developed with the assistance of individuals having extensive knowledge and experience in the Aircraft NDI Industry.
Specialists in aircraft nondestructive inspection then forwarded the analysis to companies and associations across Canada for validation. Their recommendations were assessed and incorporated. The final draft was then reviewed to ensure conformity with the CAMC nationally approved format.
The final document, which is the primary reference for the development of a standard training curriculum, was translated and printed in both official languages.
The Occupational Analysis was laid out to facilitate the understanding of the nature of the occupation. It was split up into "Tasks" and "Sub-tasks". A Task being the specific action that, combined with others, makes up the logical and necessary steps the NDI technician is required to perform to complete an assignment within an area of activity. For example, "Performs Liquid Penetrant Inspection". Sub-tasks are the smallest division into which it is practical to sub-divide any work activity and, combined with others, fully describes all duties constituting a Task. Using the above example of a Task, a Sub-task would be "Selects penetrant as per specification". In addition, enabling objectives were identified as elements of skill and knowledge that an individual must acquire or possess to perform the Sub-tasks and Tasks satisfactory.
An example of an enabling objective specific to the above Sub-task would be "Knowledge of assembly or part manufacturers' manual(s), penetrant systems manuals, manufacturers' instructions and codes and specifications, service bulletins and technical manuals for types of penetants to be used on parts, components and assemblies". Tools & Equipment necessary to carry out the Task is also listed where applicable.
In order to facilitate compliance with the approved Occupational Analysis, a detailed Course Profile was developed which would serve as a main frame for the curriculum which would be ultimately be used by the training institutes to teach the Aerospace NDI candidates.
This task was awarded to DND to develop. A sub-committee was established from industry practitioners and academia from the provincial training institutions and colleges. Their mandate was to review and recommend changes that were necessary during the development stage of the Course Profile.
Using the Course Profile as a guide to the various tasks, the NDI Curriculum was developed. In order to minimize design time, the curriculum was developed in modules. This would further reduce the cross training time for workers transferred to other occupations within a company. The following 12 modules make up the NDI curriculum.
As in the development of the Occupational Analysis, a committee was established from specialists in the NDI Industry and community colleges to review the curriculum as it was being developed. This has been instrumental in fostering a better dialogue between the aviation maintenance industry and the education/training systems.
The development of the curriculum was done in stages. The contractor, (DND), developed a first draft of a number of modules. The modules were then submitted to the Curriculum Development Committee for review. After their review, the Committee recommended changes to the contractor, which were discussed and agreed upon. The contractor then made the necessary changes to the drafts, and the modules were re-submitted for final review and sign off by the Committee. Upon final approval, the document went for translation into French and then to print.
To summarize, the Training Standard and Core Curriculum is:
With the introduction of the International Standards Organization (ISO) there has been a need for an international standard for nondestructive testing. In 1987 ISO 9712 was first published, and since that date there has been much discussion as to whether or not harmonization of the various standards around the world is necessary. The writer strongly believes that in the global market we are faced with today, it would be in a company's interest to adapt the certification of their personnel according to the ISO standards. This would allow them to compete globally and follow many of the developing countries and Europe who have already adapted the ISO standard.
The ISO standard is based on sectors, an area which has not yet been clearly defined. However, the Canadian aviation maintenance industry has felt a need for such a sector. With help from the Canadian Aviation Maintenance Council program, the development of the aviation sector for nondestructive inspection has been accomplished in all five major methods. This is "A first in the industry".
On November 5th, 1997, a meeting was held between the Canadian General Standards Board (CGSB) committee and representatives from CAMC National Standing Trade Advisory Committee (NSTAC). At this meeting CAMC proposed that the C.G.S.B. committee approve the CAMC curriculum as a standard for training and certification for the Aviation Sector for CGSB 48-9712. As a committee, the NSTAC did not want to introduce another certification program since CGSB is a highly recognized certification program.
The proposed approach for the CAMC/CGSB certification would be as per Figure 1.
|Fig 1: Proposed Approach for CAMC/CGSB certification|
As a new candidate entering the NDI workforce, he/she would enroll with CAMC and be given a log book. This log book would be used to record all relevant practical experience and would require sign-off by a supervisor once each phase of the practical training has been successfully completed. In conjunction with on the job training (OJT), the candidate would attend a formal classroom training session following the CAMC curriculum specific to the method for which he/she is applying. Upon completion of the classroom training a written CGSB/CAMC exam would be exercised. If successful in passing the exam, the candidate would either complete the OJT portion of the training or if sufficient training had been accomplished, a practical exam in the method applied for would be given. Upon successful completion of the practical exam, the candidate would be issued a CAMC/CGSB certification. This process eliminates having to sit two written exams (i.e. a final course exam and the C.G.S.B. examination which is presently being exercised under the existing process).
The elimination of the present Level 1 certification is also proposed. The candidate would be classed as an apprentice until sufficient OJT had been accomplished and successful completion of the written and practical examination had taken place.
The exam would include questions and aircraft related components specific to the aircraft industry.
The council also has recognized that the current workforce must be treated fairly and equitably in order for the registration process to succeed. Therefore a structure has been put in place to handle candidates that have been in the business for many years in the aerospace industry practicing NDI.
Candidates coming from another industry, i.e. Petrochemical, would be required to complete a number of aerospace related modules to become eligible for certification in the aerospace industry as per Figure 2.
|Fig 2: Module map for aircraft sector of CAMC/CGSB certification.|
A number of benefits were presented to C.G.S.B. on why they should accept CAMC's proposal for using the curriculum as a training and certification program for the Aviation sector of CAN/CGSB 48-9712.
At the conclusion of the meeting, members of the CGSB committee approved, in principle, the aviation sector certification. It was agreed that a sub-committee of the National Standing Trade Advisory Committee (NSTAC), in cooperation with members of the CGSB, would work on a plan to implement the concept.
The sub-committee has just completed the process of reviewing the present C.G.S.B question banks for applicability for use in the Aerospace Sector exam. Specific Aerospace questions are now being developed. Parallel to this task a lesson plan is being worked upon to pave the way for delivery of the curriculum into the teaching institutes and colleges across Canada.
Canada and it's aviation maintenance industry have made a large leap into the harmonization process of ISO 9712, and it is hoped that other industries could follow the same process of development towards a total sector approach of CGSB certification process.
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