NDTnet - May 1997, Vol.2 No.05

Determination of crack depth using ultrasonics - An overlook

Udo Schlengermann Krautkramer Germany *

Presented on the UTonline Application Workshop in May '97
Click Here if you don't see the images in the left frame.

Introduction

The nondestructive methods for determination of the crack depth

Material separations

The basic physical principles

Evaluation via the maximum echo amplitude

Evaluation via spectral data

Evaluation via patern recognition

Display methods with complex signal processing

Evaluation of the diffraction echoes from the peak of the crack

The outlook

Literature list

  1. Arakawa T.: Hirose S.; Senda. T.; The detection of weld cracks using ultrasonic testing. Nondestr. Test. Int. 18 (1985) 1, 9 - 16.
  2. Dau. G.J.; Behravesh. M.: Status of intergranular stress corrosion crack depth sizing. Third Int. Sem. Nondestr. Exam., Monterey (1983) 195 - 204.
  3. Kinra V.K.; Vu. B. Q.: Diffraction of Rayleigh waves in a half-space. Part II: inclined edge crack. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 79 (1986) 6, 1688 - 1692.
  4. Crostack, H.A.; Oppermann. W.: Untersuchungen zur Größenbestimmung von Korrosionsrissen bei der manuellen Ultraschallprüfung. Z. Werkstofft. 15 (1984) 12, 420 - 426.
  5. Moles, M.D. C.; Allen, A.L.: Tandem probe ultrasonic measurement of cracks in economizer inlet header sections, Mater. Eval. 42 (1984) 6, 803-807.
  6. Barbian, O.A.; Grohs, B.; Kappes, W.: Evaluation of time-of-flight data with the ALOK-method. Br. J. Nondestr. Test. 26 (1984) 3, 214 - 217.
  7. Rose, J.L.; Ganglbauer, O.; Außerwöger, J.; Wallner, F.: A computer aided ultrasonic flaw characterization system for welds. Eleventh World Conf. Nondestr. Test., Las Vegas (1985) 1260 - 1267.
  8. Burger, C.P.; Testa, A.: Rayleigh wave spectroscopy to measure the depth of surface cracks. Thirteenth Symp. Nondestr. Eval., San Antonio (1982) 9 - 18.
  9. Burch, S.F.; Bealing, N.K.: A physical aproach to the automated ultrasonic characterization of buried weld defects in ferritic steel. Nondestr. Test. Int. 19 (1986) 3, 145 - 153.
  10. Rose, J.L.; Singh, G.P.: A pattern recognition reflector classification feasibility study in the ultrasonic inspection of stainless steel pipe welds. Br. J. Nondestr. Test. 21 (1979) 6, 308 - 311.
  11. Langenberg. K.J.; Berger, M.; Kreutter, Th.: Synthetic aperture focusing technique signal processing. Nondestr. Test. Int. 19 (1986) 3, 177 - 189.
  12. Wüstenberg, H.; Erhard, A.: Zur Bedeutung der akustischen Linienholographie für die Fehlergrößenbestimmung mit Ultraschall. Schweißen Schneiden 35 (1983) 5, 224 - 227.
  13. Heumüller R.; Kröning, M.: Ultraschallverfahren zum manuellen Bestimmen der Tiefe von Anrissen. Maschinenmarkt 91 (1985) 75, 1472 - 1475.
  14. Saitoh, T.; Takahashi, Sh.: Measuring the depth of cracks in austenitic stainless steel overlays by ultrasonic testing. Third Int. Conf. Nondestr. Eval. Nucl. Industry, Salt Lake City (1980) 611 - 625.
  15. Yoneyama, H.; Shibata, S.; Kishigami, M.: Crack depth measurement by flaw tip echo method. Sixth Int. Conf. Nondestr. Eval. Nucl. Industry, Zürich (1983) 257 - 262.
  16. Dalberg, P.: A four probe technique for accurate sizing using ultrasonic diffraction. Ultrasonics International Conf., Brighton (1981) 384 - 389.
  17. Date, K.: Shimada, H.: Ikenaga, N.: Crack height measurement, - an evaluation of the accuracy of ultrasonic timing methods. Nondestr. Test. Int. 15 (1982) 6, 315 - 319.
  18. Hirao, M.; Fukuoka, H.; Miura, Y.: Scattering of Rayleigh surface waves by edge cracks: Numerical simulation and experiments. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 72 (1982) 2, 602 - 606.
  19. Cooper, J.A.; Crosbie, R.A.; Dewhurst, R.J.: Surface acoustic wave interactions with cracks and slots: A noncontacting study using Lasers. IEEE Transact. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Contr. 33 (1986) 5, 462 - 470.
  20. Date, K.; Shimada, H.: Ito, Y.: Monitoring crack extension in fracture toughness tests by ultrasonic surface waves. Nondestr. Test. J. Jap. 2 (1984) 3, 132 - 137.
  21. Fahr, A.; Kotanen, A.R.; Charlesworth, A.M.: Ultrasonic surface wave measurement of surface-breaking cracks in railway wheel. Can. Soc. Nondestr. Test. J. (1986) 1, 44 - 49.
  22. Carter, P.: Experience with time-of-flight diffraction technique and an accompanying portable and versatile ultrasonic digital recording system. Br. J. Nondestr. Test. 26 (1984) 6, 354 - 361.
  23. Gruber, G.J.; Hamlin, D.R.; Grothues, H.L.; Jackson, J.L.: Imaging of fatigue cracks in cladded pressure vessels with the SLIC-50. Nondestr. Test. Int. 19 (1986) 3, 155 - 161.

Authors

|Top to this page|
| UTonline |
© Copyright 2. May 1997 Rolf Diederichs, info@ndt.net
/DB:Article /AU:Schlengermann_U /IN:Krautkramer /CN:DE /CT:UT /CT:sizing /ED:1997-05