NDTnet - May 1997, Vol.2 No.05
Approximative Modeling for the Practical Application at Ultrasonic Inspections
H.Wüstenberg, A.Erhard *
Presented on the Application Workshop in May '97
- An approximative model for the ultrasonic inspection
- The model on a separat page!
- Practical applications and experimental veriffication of the model
Endorsed by the wide spread availability of powerful computer technology the manual ultrasonic inspection e. g. on welds is to an increasing amount replaced by mechanized automatic inspections. The standard presentation of a result from an automatic inspection is a picture of indications either in a direct presentation of the basic datas received by the ultrasonic inspection device (e.g. C-Scans or B-Scans produced by combining A-scan- and probe position data) or derived from the primary datas with more or less sophisticated transformation procedures (SAFT, Holography etc.). Due to the imagelike presentation of the results, the operator has to apply special acceptance criteria which are not only derived from the echo amplitude. They should ruthermore be based on typical patterns corresponding to special defect situations. Theoretical modeling of such patterns represents therefore a stringent need for a reliable automatic ultrasonic inspection and for the training of operators. This contribution tries to describe a kind of approximative modeling for the practical application at ultrasonic inspections for some typical cases.
Figure 1 shows a schematic of a procedure for the developement of solutions for a new inspection task for an NDT method. The selection of the best method for the inspection, the optimization of the method, the qualification and the evaluation of the results can successfully be executed and accellerated by the appropriate use of theoretical modeling. But the practical use of modeling requires the on line availability of results and the possibility to change rapidly the interesting parameters of a modeled situation, that means e.g. to play with different hypothesis of possible defects etc. This leads at present to a certain preference for approximative methods, because they are the only ones being fast enough on the basis of the mainly applied personal computers. Powerfull workstations will in future also be present in many laboratories and service companies, but they certainly require higher qualified personal, which is usually not available on site. Some problems with the approximations and their limitations will be discussed at the end of this contribution.
The simulation of an NDT situation by computers can contribute to the training of operators and to the solution of different problems: e.g. it seems to be possible to predict the reliability of certain inspection methods, the direction of optimization procedures can be defined and the comparison of a given result with a theoretically calculated defect image can enhance the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the results.
2. An approximative model for the ultrasonic inspection
Despite the positive esteem of the important quality improvements by the ultrasonic inspection at the early fiftees e.g. on forged and rolled steel products, the application of a theoretical modeling of this inspection method had been limited to the description of the most important parameters using simplified idealisations of the wave propagation and of the interaction between the waves and the surface of a defect, see also the theoretical argumentation for the DGS-diagram of J.Krautkrämer  (1959). A look into the classical book "Materials Testing with Ultrasound" by Joseph and Herbert Krautkrämer  shows on the first 120 pages a lot of elementary physical thoughts introducing into the theory of the ultrasonic inspection.
Today even the most powerful finite element programming tools like EFIT and others, [14, 15] offering a reliable reference with a modeling very close to the reality are not ready to be used on an inspection site due to the time needed for the calculations. Such a finite element code is a very useful tool for single experiments, but it is very time consuming, if used for the simulation of a fairly detailed problem on site and on line. This underlines the strong interest on approximative calculation models. At the BAM we have therefore started to work again on some simplified modeling coming back to experiences from the late seventees.
4. Practical applications and experimental veriffication of the model
4.1 Inclined notches
4.2 Inner crack
The case of a crack in the inner medium of a planar and parallel test object is demonstrated in figure 15. The different rays of this model are shown in figures 14 and 14a. Using a 45° angle beam probe for shear waves with a small transducer size (8 x 9 mm) enables the probe to receive not only crack-tip indications produced by shear waves but also some mode converted signals for longitudinal waves between the crack and the bottom surface generated at about 35°-38° angle of incidence at the defect surface. Figure 15 shows a typical TD-scan received by this arrangement.|
See also a downloadable demonstration program  (hf-bild.exe in : ut_sim.zip).
The same downloadable demonstration program contains also the case of an inclined and perpendicular notch.
Figures 14 and 14a
Comparison of measured and calculated B-Scans at internal Crack
4.3 Crack within a Turbine shaft
The examples of a simplified modeling of the indication pattern at different inspection cases are demonstrating the possibility to predict with a standard Personal Computer the patterns of typical defect situations and thus to enhance the planification of a NDT inspection and the interpretation of its result.
The application of program codes based on approximations requires, that the user possess sufficient physical background knowledge of the applied inspection approach. The greater computer expenses for more exact approaches with finite element programs is replaced at the approximative modeling by simplifying descriptions which mostly are based on expert knowledge. The very fast calculations and the possibility to adapt the parameters to a given situation with an interactive variation justify this procedure. The approximations used for the presented model are physically well based and are describing the most essential interactions qualitatively and to a satisfying degree also quantitatively in a sufficient agreement with experimental results. But for the time being the simplicity of the approach is limiting its application to well defined classes of geometry (rectangular or trapezoidal blocks and concentric cylindrical bodies with abritrarly oriented defects). It seems not to be a useful task to extend this approach to general geometries, because this would need a very detailed individual ray tracing study for each case. The real gain in time and plausible understanding of the physics may then vanish and at the end one has to decide upon the option to apply a more generally valid program like the one using the EFIT-Code of Prof.Langenberg in Kassel/Germany. Therefore we would recommand the use of our approximative model only together with a geometrically idealized description of the practical problem fitted to the capability of the modeling software. The model requires the classification of the considered inspection case depending on the geometrical difficulties.
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- Christophe Bellon (Ecole Nationale des Mines de Saint-Etienne)
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Vérification de l´approximation de l´élastodynamique physique"
Travail de fin d´études
BAM - Berlin 1997
- H. Wuestenberg, R. Boehm
Simulation of an Ultrasonic Inspection
Copyright 1. Nov 1996
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© Copyright 1. May 1997 Rolf Diederichs, email@example.com
/DB:Article /AU:Wuestenberg_H /AU:Erhard_A_ /IN:BAM /CN:DE /CT:UT /CT:modeling /CT:transducer /ED:1997-05