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Technical Discussions
Meh Iskandar
Meh Iskandar
09:57 Mar-06-2011
X-Ray for composite materials

Hello,

Could you please let me know which types of composite materials can be inspected by X-Ray effectively? For example is the polyethylene pipes can be inspected by X-ray?

Thanks

 
 Reply 
 
Nigel Armstrong
Engineering, - Specialist services
United Kingdom, Joined Oct 2000, 1096

Nigel Armstrong

Engineering, - Specialist services
United Kingdom,
Joined Oct 2000
1096
10:30 Mar-06-2011
Re: X-Ray for composite materials
In Reply to Meh Iskandar at 09:57 Mar-06-2011 (Opening).

Mehdi

I have been taught that polyethylene is not a composite material but a polymer (or in common parlance, a plastic). It is formed of long chain C-H molecules and is a one phase Material. PE is very easily radiographed. Low kV only required.

Composite materials is a general term for many varying materials of more than one phase and they may also be radiographed - in fact anything which can be penetrated by the power of the radiation source at your disposal can be radiographed. As for which type of composite can be radiographed effectively, you need to consult with an expert in the field of NDT of composites. Please search this site and the wider web, you will find much useful information.

 
 Reply 
 
Joe Buckley
Consultant, ASNT L-III, Honorary Secretary of BINDT
Level X NDT, BINDT, United Kingdom, Joined Oct 1999, 528

Joe Buckley

Consultant, ASNT L-III, Honorary Secretary of BINDT
Level X NDT, BINDT,
United Kingdom,
Joined Oct 1999
528
13:37 Mar-06-2011
Re: X-Ray for composite materials
In Reply to Meh Iskandar at 09:57 Mar-06-2011 (Opening).

Agree with both Nigels comments, but the key point is what are you trying to find?

Almost any material can be inspected by X-ray, the key point is will the defects you need to identify show up?

I the case of PE pipe, (as Nigel says, not a composite) you could be looking for internal voids, splits, de-laminations, lack of concentricty, incorrect thickness, defects in welds, or other problems i haven't thought of. for some of these X-ray would be suitable, others maybe not.

In the particular case of X-ray the main reasons NOT to use it are quite often health and safety related. you need to think about these as well. In the case of composite materials it is normal to use low KV, Constant potential Xray in a shielded X-ray bay, this costs a lot to set up. That may be a factor too.

 
 Reply 
 
anirudha
Engineering
India, Joined Mar 2011, 1

anirudha

Engineering
India,
Joined Mar 2011
1
17:24 Mar-06-2011
Re: X-Ray for composite materials
In Reply to Meh Iskandar at 09:57 Mar-06-2011 (Opening).

Hi,
I would like to find the defects in the CASTINGS of cast iron and steel prior to machining stage. The Technology should be at low cost and should not be more delicate to operate in foundary,

Thanks

 
 Reply 
 
Meh Iskandar
Meh Iskandar
21:20 Mar-06-2011
Re: X-Ray for composite materials
In Reply to Meh Iskandar at 09:57 Mar-06-2011 (Opening).

- Thanks for Armstrong and Buckley,

Maybe I should be more precise in my next questions. Actually I should asked, If it is possible to inspect electrofusion joints of PE pipes by gamma- Ray, (and not X-Ray)?

Best Thanks, Mehdi

 
 Reply 
 
Nigel Armstrong
Engineering, - Specialist services
United Kingdom, Joined Oct 2000, 1096

Nigel Armstrong

Engineering, - Specialist services
United Kingdom,
Joined Oct 2000
1096
21:30 Mar-06-2011
Re: X-Ray for composite materials
In Reply to Meh Iskandar at 21:20 Mar-06-2011 .

well you use a different technique than x-ray of composites!

Select appropriate isotope (NOT Cobalt 60), place film and correct (PE) IQI on one side of joint, place isotope guide tube on other, clear area, wind out isotope, guess exposure time according to source type and strength, process and view film, alter exposure time until you obtaina cceptable results.

You can make PE IQI by drilling holes 2% depth in same material and thickness.

I hope this helps.

 
 Reply 
 
S V Swamy
Engineering, - Material Testing Inspection & Quality Control
Retired from Nuclear Fuel Complex , India, Joined Feb 2001, 787

S V Swamy

Engineering, - Material Testing Inspection & Quality Control
Retired from Nuclear Fuel Complex ,
India,
Joined Feb 2001
787
21:34 Mar-06-2011
Re: X-Ray for composite materials
In Reply to Meh Iskandar at 21:20 Mar-06-2011 .

First you need to establish the exposure parameters in a lab before attempting the field trials. Prepare test specimens with artificial discontinuities or create test specimens with some natural discontinuities, qualify the procedure in a lab using first x-ray and then the appropriate isotope gamma source. Then field / shop-floor application becomes easy.

Swamy
Quality and NDT Expert / Consultant

 
 Reply 
 
Nguyen Trong My
Director,
Vietnam Inspection Solutions Co., Ltd, Vietnam, Joined May 2000, 22

Nguyen Trong My

Director,
Vietnam Inspection Solutions Co., Ltd,
Vietnam,
Joined May 2000
22
06:12 Mar-07-2011
Re: X-Ray for composite materials
In Reply to Meh Iskandar at 09:57 Mar-06-2011 (Opening).

Hello,
Agree with Nigels that principally all tyes of composites might be radiographed. However, composites are usually made of low-Z materials, X-ray energy should be chosen as low as possible to get better contrast and image quality. Common defects in composite materials are disbond, lamination, porosity and compact damage, water content. X-ray radiography is good for volumetric defects and not very sensitive to planar defects. In light of this X-ray radiography is good for porisity and water content detection. Disbonding, delaminations are ususlly detected by ultrasonic resonance, pitch- catch and mechanical impedance analysis techniques or with laser techniques.
Hope this information helps
Good luck,
My

 
 Reply 
 
Nigel Armstrong
Engineering, - Specialist services
United Kingdom, Joined Oct 2000, 1096

Nigel Armstrong

Engineering, - Specialist services
United Kingdom,
Joined Oct 2000
1096
10:28 Mar-07-2011
Re: X-Ray for composite materials
In Reply to Nigel Armstrong at 21:30 Mar-06-2011 .

Sorry my big mistake - of course film and IQI do NOT go on the same side of the examination material but rather on OPPOSITE sides with IQI on the side nearest to the radiation source (guide tube).

 
 Reply 
 
Wolfgang Bisle
R & D, senior Engineer and nomiated Expert
retired from Airbus Deutschland GmbH, Germany, Joined Jul 2000, 35

Wolfgang Bisle

R & D, senior Engineer and nomiated Expert
retired from Airbus Deutschland GmbH,
Germany,
Joined Jul 2000
35
17:53 Mar-08-2011
Re: X-Ray for composite materials
In Reply to Nigel Armstrong at 10:28 Mar-07-2011 .

I have learned recently:
Low energy for composites is news from yesterday.
Only if you use Film.
For today's new detector media new rules have to be followed:
If you use detectors or the new detector foils, it is better to go with high energy.
With low energy you loose a lot of performance.
We just adapt our procedures....
Thats just for short - get more explanations from the detector experts or from the detector foil experts - it is a function of the different physical process used by film exposure and in case of semiconductor materials exposed to rays.

 
 Reply 
 

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