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- since 1996 -

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Technical Discussions
Kristian
Kristian
09:46 Mar-06-2015
Phased Array on Super Duplex pipe

Hi there

Any PA probes to recommend for inspection on Super-Duplex pipe, 14 inch, OD 355,6 with thickness 21mm? Is there any possibility to do inspection without flushing the cap?

 
 Reply 
 
J Mark Davis
Teacher, And Consultant
University of Ultrasonics, Birmingham, Alabama, USA, Joined Mar 2000, 85

J Mark Davis

Teacher, And Consultant
University of Ultrasonics, Birmingham, Alabama,
USA,
Joined Mar 2000
85
14:50 Mar-06-2015
Re: Phased Array on Super Duplex pipe
In Reply to Kristian at 09:46 Mar-06-2015 (Opening).

With conventional UT you would probably flat top the weld and then use Refracted Long Waves.

But, with Phased Array you can use 32 elements and scan using shearwaves with no problems

We have successfully qualified Phased Array with shearwaves up to 1.8 inches thickness on Duplex SS.

The key element is to qualify the Essential Variables when using the Phased Array using a qualification pipe section with the required flaw dimensions per ASME.

 
 Reply 
 
Bill
USA, Joined Jan 2010, 52

Bill

USA,
Joined Jan 2010
52
17:49 Mar-06-2015
Re: Phased Array on Super Duplex pipe
In Reply to Kristian at 09:46 Mar-06-2015 (Opening).

Kristian,

When it comes to coarse gain material, it is usually best to take it on a case by case basis. The material, welding procedure, heat treat, all influence your ability to examine a weld with UT. I have seen common S/S be easily examined; I have also seen shear waves completely unable to penetrate the weld of the same material. It just all depends.

What I would recommend is that you test the material. A simple pitch/catch experiment, not unlike a transfer correction, will tell you all you need to know about the base material, weld material, needed frequency, needed aperture, re-direction (anisotropic), velocity, refracted angle, etc…

When things get tough high angle L-waves can help. Standard L-wave refracting wedges will work in most cases for the upper portion/surface, lower angles for the rest. If you need more punch, move to a tandem probe.

 
 Reply 
 
Gokul
Consultant, AUT Specialist
India, Joined Jul 2013, 76

Gokul

Consultant, AUT Specialist
India,
Joined Jul 2013
76
00:59 Mar-07-2015
Re: Phased Array on Super Duplex pipe
In Reply to Kristian at 09:46 Mar-06-2015 (Opening).

Kristian,

Use TRL (PA) probes producing compression mode sound wave.
It overcomes many of the limitations raised by corse grains and anisotropic material.
Select other essential variables for better penetration (consider also the sensitivity with changing variables)

Success is yours ;)

 
 Reply 
 
Ed Ginzel
R & D, -
Materials Research Institute, Canada, Joined Nov 1998, 1307

Ed Ginzel

R & D, -
Materials Research Institute,
Canada,
Joined Nov 1998
1307
13:53 Mar-07-2015
Re: Phased Array on Super Duplex pipe
In Reply to Kristian at 09:46 Mar-06-2015 (Opening).

Kristian, Bill's advice is is in accord with my experience. Duplex steels have a mixed microstructure of austenite and ferrite (50/50). Essentially islands of austenite surrounded by ferrite. Super duplex merely has higher Mo/Cr content).
On a project I worked on, I followed the same path Bill described and obtained a transfer correction using pitch-catch. I was quite surprised to see that it was actually easier to get through the duplex weld than the carbon steel parent metal. We used a standard 7.5MHz linear array on a refracting wedge to carry out the inspection.
If this is the case for your situation you will not have to make any special considerations for probe type.

 
 Reply 
 
Kristian
Kristian
13:43 Mar-09-2015
Re: Phased Array on Super Duplex pipe
In Reply to Ed Ginzel at 13:53 Mar-07-2015 .

Hi Ed Ginzel.

But did you need to flat the cap for this inspection? didnt you get much noise With so high frequency?

 
 Reply 
 
Ed Ginzel
R & D, -
Materials Research Institute, Canada, Joined Nov 1998, 1307

Ed Ginzel

R & D, -
Materials Research Institute,
Canada,
Joined Nov 1998
1307
13:59 Mar-09-2015
Re: Phased Array on Super Duplex pipe
In Reply to Kristian at 13:43 Mar-09-2015 .

The weld was a narrow gap GMAW weld and we treated it as any other weld (using zonal discrimination we scan from both sides with angled beams). As for the frequency, it is as Bill noted, a case by case situation. Since there was actually a lower attenuation in the duplex material than the carbon steel (by only 1-2 dB) we had to make no special changes compared to a regular carbon steel condition. My posting was merely to advise you that Bill's recommendation to actually put a probe on the part and get some idea of the actual attenuation/scatter is the necessary first step.

 
 Reply 
 
Mario Talarico
NDT Inspector,
Italy, Joined May 2010, 423

Mario Talarico

NDT Inspector,
Italy,
Joined May 2010
423
23:39 Mar-09-2015
Re: Phased Array on Super Duplex pipe
In Reply to Kristian at 09:46 Mar-06-2015 (Opening).

I agree: duplex and supeduplex, considering the attenuation, can be controlled with shear wave, for my experience indicatively up to ≈30 mm. This technique is applicable as the one with compression waves.
Avoid generalising about: checking the operating conditions with reference reflectors in welding in multiple locations. Otherwise, significant defects may remain inside. In the case of curved parts you have to go with lead feet: under certain geometric conditions (eg welding back) some upper parts of the weld may be inaccessible to the rebound. In this case flat grinding of esternal cap with scanning directly from above the cap grinded, with compression waves double beam, is winning.
greetings
mario

 
 Reply 
 
Ezhilarasu
Ezhilarasu
08:04 Jun-13-2015
Re: Phased Array on Super Duplex pipe
In Reply to Kristian at 09:46 Mar-06-2015 (Opening).

Check this paper. It may useful.
http://www.ndt.net/article/nde-india2014/papers/CP0112_full.pdf

 
 Reply 
 
Mark
Mark
09:34 Jun-14-2015
Re: Phased Array on Super Duplex pipe
In Reply to Ezhilarasu at 08:04 Jun-13-2015 .

Ezhilarasu,
regarding to http://www.ndt.net/article/nde-india2014/papers/CP0112_full.pdf
Why the they havent try 2.25 MHz Phasd array probe instead of 5MHz.I think the scan of welds are too noisy.I do not agree with this sentence ((The 5MHz shear wave was
chosen for the procedure development as an optimum balance of signal to noise ratio and sensitivity
to defect size compared with over the 7.5MHz and 2.25MHz frequencies on both HIP and extruded
materials)).They must have been used 2.25 MHz probe and compared with 5 Mhz probe.

 
 Reply 
 
Ezhilarasu
Ezhilarasu
19:43 Jun-14-2015
Re: Phased Array on Super Duplex pipe
In Reply to Mark at 09:34 Jun-14-2015 .

Mark,

The frequencies of 2.25, 5 and 7.5 MHz were tried in the trails.

See the attached S/N ratio image for HIP material, 5 MHz was better compare to 2.25 MHz. But in case of forged material 2.25 MHz was better. The selection of frequency is based on signal to noise ratio and which is influenced by material grain structure. HIP is fine grained and 5 MHz was good.

 
 Reply 
 
Peter
Singapore, Joined Jan 2012, 126

Peter

Singapore,
Joined Jan 2012
126
12:04 Jun-15-2015
Re: Phased Array on Super Duplex pipe
In Reply to Ezhilarasu at 19:43 Jun-14-2015 .

Hi,

Just would like to know your concern on detectability. Compare with pitch size 0.6mm and 1.5mm, I think 1.5mm give better and clear results. What would be the reason? Which pitch size you all prefer for coarse grain materials?

Peter

 
 Reply 
 
Irfan
NDT Inspector,
Malaysia, Joined Mar 2015, 10

Irfan

NDT Inspector,
Malaysia,
Joined Mar 2015
10
04:21 Jun-16-2015
Re: Phased Array on Super Duplex pipe
In Reply to Mark at 09:34 Jun-14-2015 .

Hi Ezhilarasu,

The scan data presented in the report looks so noisy and i am wondering what would be the outcome should the test was done on a blind sample piece.Look like one will be struggling to distinguish between the grain and indication due to Signal to Noise ratio..

 
 Reply 
 
Ezhilarasu
Ezhilarasu
17:19 Jun-18-2015
Re: Phased Array on Super Duplex pipe
In Reply to Irfan at 04:21 Jun-16-2015 .

Irfan,

The Fig 6 shows the scan data of blind trail and we can able to catch the discontinuity clearly. We need to live with the available better (S/N) options.
FYI These defects were missed in RT and confirmed in Macro.

 
 Reply 
 

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