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- since 1996 -
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Technical Discussions
Yassine
NDT Inspector,
BCI Morocco, Morocco, Joined Oct 2015, 2

Yassine

NDT Inspector,
BCI Morocco,
Morocco,
Joined Oct 2015
2
13:30 May-06-2016
PAUT Echo

Good day all

This is my first post in the forum, I in Phased Array training period I want to know the difference between the echo of lack of penetration and lack of fusion.
thank you all

 
 Reply 
 
Paul Holloway
Consultant,
Holloway NDT & Engineering Inc , Canada, Joined Apr 2010, 233

Paul Holloway

Consultant,
Holloway NDT & Engineering Inc ,
Canada,
Joined Apr 2010
233
15:11 May-06-2016
Re: PAUT Echo
In Reply to Yassine at 13:30 May-06-2016 (Opening).

Lack of pen on a traditional single V weld will produce an irregularity on the root signal on the B-scan. Normally the root signal will sit just below B0, but if it moves up, it may indicate lack of pen. On a double V weld, you'll be looking at the middle, where no intentional geometric indication (like the root on a single V) is present. Generally, lack of pen on a double V should be easier to characterize. In either case, lack of pen is largely volumetric, and you should be able to detect it from either side over a wide range of angles. It can be irregular, so don't expect a clean, uniform image.

Lack of fusion is a little different, as it is not volumetric and acts more like a mirror. It's "loud" (or red on the C-scan, if you're set up correctly), but only if you hit it close to perpendicular. It can be virtually invisible from the other side, or from the same side, but wrong leg.

 
 Reply 
 
Paul Holloway
Consultant,
Holloway NDT & Engineering Inc , Canada, Joined Apr 2010, 233

Paul Holloway

Consultant,
Holloway NDT & Engineering Inc ,
Canada,
Joined Apr 2010
233
15:17 May-06-2016
Re: PAUT Echo
In Reply to Yassine at 13:30 May-06-2016 (Opening).

Also, if you simply type "phased array lack of fusion" into a simple Google search, you'll find dozens of good image examples. Same for lack of penetration.

 
 Reply 
 
massimo carminati
Consultant, AUT specialist
IMG Ultrasuoni Srl, Italy, Joined Apr 2007, 691

massimo carminati

Consultant, AUT specialist
IMG Ultrasuoni Srl,
Italy,
Joined Apr 2007
691
20:23 May-06-2016
Re: PAUT Echo
In Reply to Yassine at 13:30 May-06-2016 (Opening).

They are hopefully teching you how important is to know the weld geometry and to accurately calibrate time base, wedge delay and properties and to perform a scan at an index position as accurate as possible and close to scan plan. If so, you will not have any problem in distingushing a LOP from a LOF from its position considering the probe orientation. And keep in mind that PAUT is always UT.

1
 
 Reply 
 
Daniel Braun
Daniel Braun
21:40 May-06-2016
Re: PAUT Echo
In Reply to Yassine at 13:30 May-06-2016 (Opening).

Here you may see the video illustrating dynamically the S-Scan coverage of the butt weld with the lack of fusion and the corresponding echo:
http://www.sonotronndt.com/EXPERT_A_TRANSIT.htm

Here you may see the video illustrating dynamically the S-Scan coverage of the fillet weld with the incomplete penetration and the corresponding echo:
http://www.sonotronndt.com/Fillet_Welds.htm

In the PDF file here: http://www.sonotronndt.com/APPLICATIONS/PA_APPS/PA_APP_STORE/ISONIC_PA_EXPERT_EXPERT_A.pdf
Page 13 shows that with use of the same instrument settings the lack of fusion may be detected easily from one side of the butt weld and it is difficult to detect it from the opposite side
Page 15 shows that with use of the same instrument settings the lack of penetration may be detected from both sides of the weld

In the ZIP file here: http://www.sonotronndt.com/Images/PA_UT_APPS/EXPERT_A/EXPERT_A_TRANZIT_PA_UT_EXAMPLES.zip you may find the instrument files corresponding to the pages 13, 15 in the a.m. PDF file. The files names are:
7A.asb, 7B.asb for the page 13 (lack of fusion) and 6A_1.asb, 6B_1.asb for the page 15 (lack of penetration). You may open the files and recover all corresponding A-Scans in the PC upon installing ISONIC PA Office SW package, which is available for the free download here:
http://www.sonotronndt.com/support.htm

 
 Reply 
 
Lucian
NDT Inspector,
Romania, Joined Sep 2010, 6

Lucian

NDT Inspector,
Romania,
Joined Sep 2010
6
22:12 May-16-2016
Re: PAUT Echo
In Reply to massimo carminati at 20:23 May-06-2016 .

Hello, how would you differentiate from a weld geometry signal and a LOP?
When scanning from one side only?

 
 Reply 
 
Daniel Braun
Daniel Braun
11:40 May-17-2016
Re: PAUT Echo
In Reply to Lucian at 22:12 May-16-2016 .

In case of using TTGI (True-To-Geometry Coverage and Imaging) Technology:

1. Enter the geometry of the weld including the outer dimensions and weld bevel, high-low displacement, and the like - all is easy to determine while on site

2. Go to the inspection and obtain every indication in it's real location. Of course there is some uncertainty especially in case of the welds with coarse structure, deviation of the actual ultrasound velocity from the value keyed in, but this works;
Refer for example to:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ahP6WPErPXw

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pHghBLlONdA

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ofeaq1AmNcQ

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-CaE1hbUKTw


http://www.sonotronndt.com/EXPERT_A_TRANSIT.htm

http://www.sonotronndt.com/APPLICATIONS/PA_APPS/PA_APP_STORE/ISONIC_PA_EXPERT_EXPERT_A.pdf - pages 9 through 16

In the ZIP file here: http://www.sonotronndt.com/Images/PA_UT_APPS/EXPERT_A/EXPERT_A_TRANZIT_PA_UT_EXAMPLES.zip you may find the corresponding instrument files. You may open the files and recover all corresponding A-Scans in the PC upon installing ISONIC PA Office SW package, which is available for the free download here:
http://www.sonotronndt.com/support.htm

 
 Reply 
 
massimo carminati
Consultant, AUT specialist
IMG Ultrasuoni Srl, Italy, Joined Apr 2007, 691

massimo carminati

Consultant, AUT specialist
IMG Ultrasuoni Srl,
Italy,
Joined Apr 2007
691
19:04 May-17-2016
Re: PAUT Echo
I would not leave my judgement to a software without exact knowledge of manufacturing tolerances. Infact these tolerances are in many case higher than the tolerances acceptable for UT settings. This could heavily mislead and allow lots of false calls and defects missing.
 
 Reply 
 
Daniel Braun
Daniel Braun
23:55 May-17-2016
Re: PAUT Echo
In Reply to massimo carminati at 19:04 May-17-2016 .

TTGI technology simply plots the positions of the echoes above the part drawing and does it in real time; so the software does not decide but simply assist to the operator: usually the UT operators doing regular A-Scan or S-Scan or B-Scan do the same but manually. TTGI technology is still the UT, for that purpose every single focal law A-Scan law is stored and the images are formed of the A-Scans data either in real time or upon file opening; every single focal law A-Scan may be evaluated in the classic way as in the regular ultrasonic flaw detector at any moment; and, of course the Multigroup coverage may be organized providing seeing of the regular S-Scan, B-Scan and TTGI image on the same screen simultaneously so the multiple way of data presentation may be helpful as well. At the end: the operator decides and the decision should be taken according to the inspection procedure considering all tolerances

 
 Reply 
 

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