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- since 1996 -

Sonatest Ltd
From our three distinct business centres in the UK, USA and CANADA, Sonatest design and produce a leading range of high performance ultrasonic NDT equipment and accessories.

Technical Discussions
personal, Canada, Joined Mar 2019, 5


Joined Mar 2019
02:22 Mar-11-2019
phased array and tfm

Is there anyone to explain what the difference is between a Phased array, VTFM, TFM, TOFD and DDF including of advantages and disadvantages on the weld joints?
Also, what is the difference these methods with respect to resolution, sensitivity, focusing, sizing and detection?

Another question is, how can I find the best definition of resolution, sensitivity, and focusing on Phased array and TFM ( in standard , book or handbook )?

Turkey, Joined Oct 2014, 38


Joined Oct 2014
07:48 Mar-11-2019
Re: phased array and tfm
In Reply to victor at 02:22 Mar-11-2019 (Opening).

Hi Victor,

Definition of sensitivity, resolution..etc are usually discussed in UT and Phased Array training course notes, so better to refer to them if you have attended a training, if not, it is highly recommended to do so.

About TFM, DDF and ToFD you may find many videos on Youtube, bear in mind that ToFD has a dedicated training course so if you like to gain detailed knowledge, you can attend a course.


Anmol Birring
Birring NDE Center, Inc., USA, Joined Aug 2011, 720

Anmol Birring

Birring NDE Center, Inc.,
Joined Aug 2011
18:20 Mar-11-2019
Re: phased array and tfm
In Reply to victor at 02:22 Mar-11-2019 (Opening).

You should read about SAFT

19:37 Mar-11-2019
Re: phased array and tfm
In Reply to Anmol Birring at 18:20 Mar-11-2019 .

Of course it is wise to attend a training for PAUT inspection to really understand the essentials of all those techniques.
Nevertheless sometime some good training material could help to get a little deeper in to the technoques without a costly training course.

Olympus as one of the first to introduce powerful and very portable PAUT-equipment (originally it was RDTech about 20 years ago, but they were bought by Olympus) have two nice documents which explain the basics:
Introduction to Phased Array Ultrasonic Technology Applications
Advances in Phased Array Ultrasonic Technology Applications

another paper giving some insights:

You may find more if you search for the terms VTFM, TFM, TOFD and DDF even here in NDT.net. In the web you may find also some interesting PhD-Thesis about signal processing of PAUT signals, usually those Thesis have some chapters introducing the various focussing techniques, which are rather valuable - of course the main topic of the paper is often complex with a lot of formula hardly to understand for non-academics.


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