where expertise comes together - since 1996 -

The Largest Open Access Portal of Nondestructive Testing (NDT)

Conference Proceedings, Articles, News, Exhibition, Forum, Network and more

where expertise comes together
- since 1996 -

Matec Instrument Companies, Inc.
Ultrasonic test instrumentation and systems for scientific research, quality control inspection and production testing applications.
253 views
Technical Discussions
Lirin Philip
,
VALDEL , India, Joined Sep 2019, 10

Lirin Philip

,
VALDEL ,
India,
Joined Sep 2019
10
12:40 Sep-19-2019
Ply orientation using UT

Is there any effective way to identify ply orientation (fiber orientation) in a composite material using UT.

    
 
 Reply 
 
Godfrey Hands
Consultant,
PRI Nadcap, United Kingdom, Joined Nov 1998, 302

Godfrey Hands

Consultant,
PRI Nadcap,
United Kingdom,
Joined Nov 1998
302
21:59 Sep-23-2019
Re: Ply orientation using UT
In Reply to Lirin Philip at 12:40 Sep-19-2019 (Opening).

Hi Lirin,
You my get an indication by using high frequency (> 10MHz) immersion Ultrasonics with the gain set very high and the time window or gate set to the individual ply that you are looking for.

Never tried to determine ply orientation, but have seen "shapes" resembling plies at approx. 45 and 135 degrees
Godfrey

    
 
 Reply 
 
Wieslaw Bicz
Engineering,
PBP Optel sp. z o.o., Poland, Joined Feb 2009, 259

Wieslaw Bicz

Engineering,
PBP Optel sp. z o.o.,
Poland,
Joined Feb 2009
259
12:30 Sep-24-2019
Re: Ply orientation using UT
In Reply to Lirin Philip at 12:40 Sep-19-2019 (Opening).

The most effective way to do it is to use waves, that are traveling not perpendicular to the surface, but at least partially parallel to the fiber direction. In thin plates the simplest method is the measurement of transmission of air ultrasound at the angle of maximum transmission: the differences in sound speed and attenuation in different directions are significant. This method is even able to detect the direction of rolling in steel sheets very easily. In thick plates the apparent attenuation of air ultrasound will make such measurement very difficult. It is better to use contact transducer working at some angle.

    
 
 Reply 
 
J.B.
J.B.
19:58 Sep-24-2019
Re: Ply orientation using UT
In Reply to Wieslaw Bicz at 12:30 Sep-24-2019 .

Lirin,
looks like you try to squeeze her the forum to get the full view of industrial CFRP-NDT.

I guess you should invest a little more in an intelligent literature recherche:
You may already find some papers here in NDT.net, but the jewels are well distributed in the WEB. Problem is: the companies with the most experience in this field (Airbus & Boeing) do not publish. Their business is building aircrafts but not spreading their knowledge to public. So you have to look for the resources they get part of their know how - this are suppliers - which also have not really the need to spread their technology verbally, and this are Researchers - which in contrast to all others need to publish to increase their academic reputation. And here you may find - besides of a lot of rubbish/garbage - some valuable information: but you have to put the pieces together by yourself.

In a lot of previous answers you may see: even here a lot of "experts" tell you about things they never did responsibly in industry, the CFRP community especially of advanced structures is still a field of only a few High Tech Companies.

So where to get informations from?
EASA and FAA support some research and this is openly published. So an agency of FAA is AANC (FAA Airworthiness Assurance Center AANC) from Sandia Labs, which is payed by the FAA.

The design guide for CFRP aerospace is the CMH17 from SAE (https://www.cmh17.org/) - here are also some chapters dealing with NDT, SAE offers also a lot of papers regarding that topic e.g. here: https://www.sae.org/publications/collections/content/aeropaks/

In UK you may find a lot of researchers around BAEsystems, Airbus and Bombardier (Shorts Brothers) which work on CFRP aero structures - e.g. at the Univ. of Bath or at the Univ. of Bristol. A major topic in the development phase of full CFRP aircrafts was the detection of waviness, where the fiber orientation is the key – you will find a lot publications about this topic in Researchgate.net.
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/257422347_Imaging_composite_material_using_ultrasonic_arrays
See also informations from QinetiQ - http://www.ndts.com/files/1413/4495/9994/R_A_Smith_QinetiQ_Ltd_NDT2008_Full_Paper_for_INSIGHT_Feb_2009.pdf

Search also for papers about Full Matrix Capture as a latest technique using UT arrays.

Finally check with CIVA – lot of work regarding you question was simulated with CIVA in the frame of the development of B787 and A350XWB. See e.g.
• https://www.researchgate.net/publication/324671276_Modeling_approaches_for_the_simulation_of_ultrasonic_inspections_of_anisotropic_composite_structures_in_the_CIVA_software_platform
• https://www.ndt.net/events/ECNDT2014/app/content/Paper/344_Dominguez.pdf
• https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/e417/77a84b02b0c3843263a9945b160da1273d87.pdf

Just some ideas!

By the way: ACUT (air coupled ultrasound testing) may help to get information about fiber orientation, but it is a niche technology. I personally would go for PAUT with larger linear arrays or even full matrix systems. I could imagine that for axample the DophiCam (https://www.dolphitech.com/our-products/dolphicam2/) as one of the cheapest 2D-arrys could do the job, still I don't know if they provide an APP to do this - might be worth to ask them. The systems from M2M, now part of Eddyfi - http://www.m2m-ndt.com/en/ - had been used for this purpose as far as I know. Boeing as well as Airframe companies - to my knowledge - use also the Toshiba MatrixEye, which also drives 2D arrays.
But also the systems from Sonatest / Rapidscan and of course the Omniscan with linear arrays and wheel probes are in use to check for fiber orientation and waviness.

    
 
 Reply 
 
Wieslaw Bicz
Engineering,
PBP Optel sp. z o.o., Poland, Joined Feb 2009, 259

Wieslaw Bicz

Engineering,
PBP Optel sp. z o.o.,
Poland,
Joined Feb 2009
259
23:47 Sep-24-2019
Re: Ply orientation using UT
In Reply to J.B. at 19:58 Sep-24-2019 .

Frankly speaking I do not know, why you have made so complicated comment. The question was quite simple. Based on our experience (many tests) with scanners, that we have developed (for example for VW) I can only repeat: in the case of few mm thick composite plates the use of ultrasound transmission in the air is a simple, contactless method, that delivers reliable information about fibre direction and also about any inhomogeneities that could occur in the material. It delivers also the information about local changes of mechanical parameters of material and about such parameters itself (this works better than with immersion, because bending waves generated with air ultrasound are delivering more useful information than the methods suing immersion or contact testing). You can naturally use phased array systems and other methods, but they are only more complicated and require immersion or contact testing. I do not see the reason, why the simple test should be made more complicated than necessary. But everybody is naturally free to make his own job more complicated than necessary. Testing with air ultrasound can be made with a quite simple system, that allows quick tests without immersion. It may be a niche, but very reliable.

    
 
 Reply 
 
Michel Couture
NDT Inspector,
consultant, Canada, Joined Sep 2006, 848

Michel Couture

NDT Inspector,
consultant,
Canada,
Joined Sep 2006
848
03:02 Sep-27-2019
Re: Ply orientation using UT
In Reply to Lirin Philip at 12:40 Sep-19-2019 (Opening).

A few years ago I saw a demo using thermography and it worked very well. The main reason for the scan was to identify disbond area, but in dooing so, fiber orientation in composite was easily identifyable.

    
 
 Reply 
 

Product Spotlight

Teletest Focus+

Teletest Focus+ electronics have superior capabilities than rivals on the market. Beyond the usual
...
test features, Focus+ has 24 transmit channels and 24 receive channels, with an additional on-board switching capabilities. The instrument's frequency range is 10–300 kHz.
>

NOVO Armor 15 & NOVO Armor 22

The Armor Kit Contains the NOVO Armor, which provides additional mechanical protection to the NOVO 1
...
5WN & NOVO 22WN Detectors, the Armor Stand and a traveling soft cover. - Newest shock absorbent technology case - Water resistant design - Supports wired & wireless communication - Multiple positioning options - Tripod connection using the Built-in 1/4” threads - Simple Detector battery replacement
>

Echomac® Small

Available with up to eight channels of electronics to detect and evaluate thickness, flaws and eccen
...
tricity, this UT tester is housed in a convenient, smaller cabinet. This instrument can be used in conjunction with bubbler or immersion tank systems, or with a test bench or in laboratory applications. The Echomac® Small is available in the FD4, FD6 or FD6A versions.
>

Navic - Steerable Modular Automated Scanner

The Navic is a modular, motorized, steerable scanner designed to carry multiple attachments used
...
in various scanning and inspection applications. The Navic is capable of weld scanning (girth welds and long seam welds), automated corrosion mapping, and tank scanning.
>

Share...
We use technical and analytics cookies to ensure that we will give you the best experience of our website - More Info
Accept
top
this is debug window