where expertise comes together - since 1996

Web's Largest Portal of Nondestructive Testing (NDT)
Open Access Database (Conference Proceedings, Articles, News), Exhibition, Forum, Network

All Forum Boards
Technical Discussions
Career Discussions >
NDT History Events
Job Offers
Job Seeks
Classified Ads
About NDT.net
Articles & News

241746 views
09:18 Feb-06-2003
Matt Golis
NDT History Events

Hi to you all:

I was recently asked to put together a listing of significant events in the history of NDT that were both positive and negative. The events that led to both achievements and follies. The material is to be used in orienting new engineers and technicians into the role NDT has played in the evolution of technology throughout the world. I need your help in fleshing out a comprehensive and interesting list that is more than a historical cronical of who invented what and when.

Here are a few examples of the positives.

1. The "Have Cracks Will Travel" program helped to launch the use of POD, moving away from the sensitivity model common at the time.

2. The "Aloha Airlines incident" helped to launch the NDT focus on WSFD (wide-spread fatigue damage) in addition to conventional crack seeking.

3. The discovery of IGSCC in nuclear BWRs launched the NDT focus on detection of distributed crack conditions.

4. The use of in-line NDT sensors resulted in drastic reductions in scrap materials prevalent in wire, tubing, plate and sheet manufacturing.

5. The discovery of X-rays launched both the medical and industrial practices used today.

6. Pulse-echo ultrasound permits thickness gauging and gathering of reflector depth information with access from only one surface.

7. The radiography of the Liberty Bell dramatizes to the world the role of NDT in a populist manner.

8. What are your thoughts on positive impacts brought about through NDT throughout the years???

.................

Here are some of the negatives (false-starts, follies, embarrasing moments, etc.)

1. Inspectors being fooled by wrap-around UT signals when testing large components such as reactor nozzles and railroad tracks.

2. The early promises of "new" technologies such as acoustic emission, neural nets, and others touted as revolutionary in their ability to predict materials/systems failure.

3. Elaborate systems developed in the name of improved NDT but resulting in "white elephants".

4. Events where NDT predicted onething, but, due to false indications or similar situations, just the opposite was true. For example, the NDT operator calls the presence of a service-threatening indication which is in reality an unexpected anomaly in the material, joint, assembly, etc.

5. Projects that involved NDT operations and that called for great amounts of financial support but failed in a most public or disastorous manner.

6. What are some of your favorite stories along any of these lines?

................

I plan to compile all of the contributions into a final listing and will distribute the results to all of the contributors. This is intended to present the good and the amusing aspects of the evolution of NDT to new entrants into the field so they have some feel for the interesting technology they are entering.

Your help is greatly appreciated.

Dr. Matthew J. Golis
Advanced Quality Concepts
PO Box 141388, Columbus, OH 43214
Tel: (614) 268-0518
Fax: (614) 267-6288
E-mail: mattgolis@columbus.rr.com


 
00:46 Feb-06-2003

John Rodgers

Consultant
Acoustic Emission Consulting, Inc.,
USA,
Joined Oct 2001
8
Re: NDT History Events Some of your listings I would disagree with. The "Have Cracks Will Travel" program revealed an embarrasing inconsistency in the training of personnel and interpretation of manual UT applications. The positive that came out of it was the need for more concerted training standards.

The Aloha Airlines incident was, as I remember, due to widespread corrosion in fastened interfaces, which lead to secondary defect growth. I don't know that wide spread fatigue damage would be a good description of the problem, since the defects were not initiated purely in fatigue.

On your negatives list, I would disagree that the introduction of acoustic emission should be on this list. AE had to go through a process of field maturation and standards development. It is now routinely used on petrochemical pressure vessels, above ground storage tanks, railway tankcars, fiberglass piping and vessels, gas tube trailers, aerial manlifts, and high energy seam welded piping in the fossil power industry. In the last example, AE has proven to be a very cost effective and reliable indicator of early stage creep damage in seam welds, while conventional UT methods have been associated with failure to detect and prevent at least four major piping failures in the last dozen years.

: Hi to you all:
.
: I was recently asked to put together a listing of significant events in the history of NDT that were both positive and negative. The events that led to both achievements and follies. The material is to be used in orienting new engineers and technicians into the role NDT has played in the evolution of technology throughout the world. I need your help in fleshing out a comprehensive and interesting list that is more than a historical cronical of who invented what and when.
.
: Here are a few examples of the positives.
.
: 1. The "Have Cracks Will Travel" program helped to launch the use of POD, moving away from the sensitivity model common at the time.
.
: 2. The "Aloha Airlines incident" helped to launch the NDT focus on WSFD (wide-spread fatigue damage) in addition to conventional crack seeking.
.
: 3. The discovery of IGSCC in nuclear BWRs launched the NDT focus on detection of distributed crack conditions.
.
: 4. The use of in-line NDT sensors resulted in drastic reductions in scrap materials prevalent in wire, tubing, plate and sheet manufacturing.
.
: 5. The discovery of X-rays launched both the medical and industrial practices used today.
.
: 6. Pulse-echo ultrasound permits thickness gauging and gathering of reflector depth information with access from only one surface.
.
: 7. The radiography of the Liberty Bell dramatizes to the world the role of NDT in a populist manner.
.
: 8. What are your thoughts on positive impacts brought about through NDT throughout the years???
.
: .................
.
: Here are some of the negatives (false-starts, follies, embarrasing moments, etc.)
.
: 1. Inspectors being fooled by wrap-around UT signals when testing large components such as reactor nozzles and railroad tracks.
.
: 2. The early promises of "new" technologies such as acoustic emission, neural nets, and others touted as revolutionary in their ability to predict materials/systems failure.
.
: 3. Elaborate systems developed in the name of improved NDT but resulting in "white elephants".
.
: 4. Events where NDT predicted one thing, but, due to false indications or similar situations, just the opposite was true. For example, the NDT operator calls the presence of a service-threatening indication which is in reality an unexpected anomaly in the material, joint, assembly, etc.
.
: 5. Projects that involved NDT operations and that called for great amounts of financial support but failed in a most public or disastorous manner.
.
: 6. What are some of your favorite stories along any of these lines?
.
: ................
.
: I plan to compile all of the contributions into a final listing and will distribute the results to all of the contributors. This is intended to present the good and the amusing aspects of the evolution of NDT to new entrants into the field so they have some feel for the interesting technology they are entering.
.
: Your help is greatly appreciated.
.
: Dr. Matthew J. Golis
: Advanced Quality Concepts
: PO Box 141388, Columbus, OH 43214
: Tel: (614) 268-0518
: Fax: (614) 267-6288
: E-mail: mattgolis@columbus.rr.com
.



 
01:06 Feb-06-2003
Matt Golis
Re: NDT History Events John

You are exactly correct. Do you know of any event that triggered the Have Cracks program which as you say, resulted in our learning of how weak some of the inspections were. Also, I agree that AE has reached a level of maturation that now makes it a viable tool. However, in the early days, so many problems existed that its use seemed to be in real question.

For a person new to the field, I think it is healthy for them to realize that much of what we talk about is still in a state of flux (evolving continuously) and that there remain many opportunities to make a contribution to this thing we call NDT.

: Some of your listings I would disagree with. The "Have Cracks Will Travel" program revealed an embarrasing inconsistency in the training of personnel and interpretation of manual UT applications. The positive that came out of it was the need for more concerted training standards.
.
: The Aloha Airlines incident was, as I remember, due to widespread corrosion in fastened interfaces, which lead to secondary defect growth. I don't know that wide spread fatigue damage would be a good description of the problem, since the defects were not initiated purely in fatigue.
.
: On your negatives list, I would disagree that the introduction of acoustic emission should be on this list. AE had to go through a process of field maturation and standards development. It is now routinely used on petrochemical pressure vessels, above ground storage tanks, railway tankcars, fiberglass piping and vessels, gas tube trailers, aerial manlifts, and high energy seam welded piping in the fossil power industry. In the last example, AE has proven to be a very cost effective and reliable indicator of early stage creep damage in seam welds, while conventional UT methods have been associated with failure to detect and prevent at least four major piping failures in the last dozen years.
.
: : Hi to you all:
: .
: : I was recently asked to put together a listing of significant events in the history of NDT that were both positive and negative. The events that led to both achievements and follies. The material is to be used in orienting new engineers and technicians into the role NDT has played in the evolution of technology throughout the world. I need your help in fleshing out a comprehensive and interesting list that is more than a historical cronical of who invented what and when.
: .
: : Here are a few examples of the positives.
: .
: : 1. The "Have Cracks Will Travel" program helped to launch the use of POD, moving away from the sensitivity model common at the time.
: .
: : 2. The "Aloha Airlines incident" helped to launch the NDT focus on WSFD (wide-spread fatigue damage) in addition to conventional crack seeking.
: .
: : 3. The discovery of IGSCC in nuclear BWRs launched the NDT focus on detection of distributed crack conditions.
: .
: : 4. The use of in-line NDT sensors resulted in drastic reductions in scrap materials prevalent in wire, tubing, plate and sheet manufacturing.
: .
: : 5. The discovery of X-rays launched both the medical and industrial practices used today.
: .
: : 6. Pulse-echo ultrasound permits thickness gauging and gathering of reflector depth information with access from only one surface.
: .
: : 7. The radiography of the Liberty Bell dramatizes to the world the role of NDT in a populist manner.
: .
: : 8. What are your thoughts on positive impacts brought about through NDT throughout the years???
: .
: : .................
: .
: : Here are some of the negatives (false-starts, follies, embarrasing moments, etc.)
: .
: : 1. Inspectors being fooled by wrap-around UT signals when testing large components such as reactor nozzles and railroad tracks.
: .
: : 2. The early promises of "new" technologies such as acoustic emission, neural nets, and others touted as revolutionary in their ability to predict materials/systems failure.
: .
: : 3. Elaborate systems developed in the name of improved NDT but resultingin "white elephants".
: .
: : 4. Events where NDT predicted one thing, but, due to false indications or similar situations, just the opposite was true. For example, the NDT operator calls the presence of a service-threatening indication which is in reality an unexpected anomaly in the material, joint, assembly, etc.
: .
: : 5. Projects that involved NDT operations and that called for great amounts of financial support but failed in a most public or disastorous manner.
: .
: : 6. What are some of your favorite stories along any of these lines?
: .
: : ................
: .
: : I plan to compile all of the contributions into a final listing and will distribute the results to all of the contributors. This is intended to present the good and the amusing aspects of the evolution of NDT to new entrants into the field so they have some feel for the interesting technology they are entering.
: .
: : Your help is greatly appreciated.
: .
: : Dr. Matthew J. Golis
: : Advanced Quality Concepts
: : PO Box 141388, Columbus, OH 43214
: : Tel: (614) 268-0518
: : Fax: (614) 267-6288
: : E-mail: mattgolis@columbus.rr.com
: .
.



 
01:58 Feb-07-2003
David Forsyth
Re: NDT History Events I would suggest that the development of fracture mechanics followed by the adoption of damage tolerance design and maintenance in the USAF (then the FAA, CAA, and many others) is a milestone for NDT in the aerospace community, as damage tolerance (retirement for cause, safety by inspection, etc.) put the emphasis on quantitative NDT, and also provided concrete rationale for using improved NDT in many situations.

My understanding is that the famous "Have Cracks Will Travel" was an effort by the USAF community to determine whether their existing NDT capabilities were sufficient to support the implementation of damage tolerance.

Damage tolerance also requires the measurement of NDT reliability, and this therefore also drove the development of the Probability of Detection approach to the measurement of NDT reliability which is common in North America today.

Dave.

( from Matt):

: John
.
: You are exactly correct. Do you know of any event that triggered the Have Cracks program which as you say, resulted in our learning of how weak some of the inspections were.



 
01:55 Feb-08-2003

Rolf Diederichs

Director, Editor, Publisher, Internet, PHP MySQL
NDT.net,
Germany,
Joined Nov 1998
600
Re: NDT History Events I like to suggest two more events:

Germans biggest railway accident (Eschede 3 June 1998) is a positive and negative example.
No action was taken by NDT people, but the accident (now in the court) rose
more awareness such like a new DGZfP railway committee.

Another very interesting mile stone was this event:
The Internet brought the first biggest NDT conference CD-ROM of the 15th WCNDT to the public at www.ndt.net


---------------------
: Hi to you all:
.
: I was recently asked to put together a listing of significant events in the history of NDT that were both positive and negative. The events that led to both achievements and follies. The material is to be used in orienting new engineers and technicians into the role NDT has played in the evolution of technology throughout the world. I need your help in fleshing out a comprehensive and interesting list that is more than a historical cronical of who invented what and when.
.
: Here are a few examples of the positives.
.
: 1. The "Have Cracks Will Travel" program helped to launch the use of POD, moving away from the sensitivity model common at the time.
.
: 2. The "Aloha Airlines incident" helped to launch the NDT focus on WSFD (wide-spread fatigue damage) in addition to conventional crack seeking.
.
: 3. The discovery of IGSCC in nuclear BWRs launched the NDT focus on detection of distributed crack conditions.
.
: 4. The use of in-line NDT sensors resulted in drastic reductions in scrap materials prevalent in wire, tubing, plate and sheet manufacturing.
.
: 5. The discovery of X-rays launched both the medical and industrial practices used today.
.
: 6. Pulse-echo ultrasound permits thickness gauging and gathering of reflector depth information with access from only one surface.
.
: 7. The radiography of the Liberty Bell dramatizes to the world the role of NDT in a populist manner.
.
: 8. What are your thoughts on positive impacts brought about through NDT throughout the years???
.
: .................
.
: Here are some of the negatives (false-starts, follies, embarrasing moments, etc.)
.
: 1. Inspectors being fooled by wrap-around UT signals when testing large components such as reactor nozzles and railroad tracks.
.
: 2. The early promises of "new" technologies such as acoustic emission, neural nets, and others touted as revolutionary in their ability to predict materials/systems failure.
.
: 3. Elaborate systems developed in the name of improved NDT but resulting in "white elephants".
.
: 4. Events where NDT predicted one thing, but, due to false indications or similar situations, just the opposite was true. For example, the NDT operator calls the presence of a service-threatening indication which is in reality an unexpected anomaly in the material, joint, assembly, etc.
.
: 5. Projects that involved NDT operations and that called for great amounts of financial support but failed in a most public or disastorous manner.
.
: 6. What are some of your favorite stories along any of these lines?
.
: ................
.
: I plan to compile all of the contributions into a final listing and will distribute the results to all of the contributors. This is intended to present the good and the amusing aspects of the evolution of NDT to new entrants into the field so they have some feel for the interesting technology they are entering.
.
: Your help is greatly appreciated.
.
: Dr. Matthew J. Golis
: Advanced Quality Concepts
: PO Box 141388, Columbus, OH 43214
: Tel: (614) 268-0518
: Fax: (614) 267-6288
: E-mail: mattgolis@columbus.rr.com
.



 
08:21 Feb-08-2003
Matt Golis
Re: NDT History Events Rolf:

Thanx for your comments. They bring two possible "themes" that should probably be part of the evolving listing.

First- What have been the commercial "drivers" for NDT. For example, have any new regulations involving NDT come about as a result of the railway accident?

Second - How has NDT been made known to the general public? Your Internet site is a good example. Have we had any significant public awareness events or processes that have proven to be particulary effective in changing the public's awareness or confidence in NDT?

Your thoughts, as always, are appreciated.


: I like to suggest two more events:
.
: Germans biggest railway accident (Eschede 3 June 1998) is a positive and negative example.
: No action was taken by NDT people, but the accident (now in the court) rose
: more awareness such like a new DGZfP railway committee.
.
: Another very interesting mile stone was this event:
: The Internet brought the first biggest NDT conference CD-ROM of the 15th WCNDT to the public at www.ndt.net
.
:
: ---------------------
: : Hi to you all:
: .
: : I was recently asked to put together a listing of significant events in the history of NDT that were both positive and negative. The events that led to both achievements and follies. The material is to be used in orienting new engineers and technicians into the role NDT has played in the evolution of technology throughout the world. I need your help in fleshing out a comprehensive and interesting list that is more than a historical cronical of who invented what and when.
: .
: : Here are a few examples of the positives.
: .
: : 1. The "Have Cracks Will Travel" program helped to launch the use of POD, moving away from the sensitivity model common at the time.
: .
: : 2. The "Aloha Airlines incident" helped to launch the NDT focus on WSFD (wide-spread fatigue damage) in addition to conventional crack seeking.
: .
: : 3. The discovery of IGSCC in nuclear BWRs launched the NDT focus ondetection of distributed crack conditions.
: .
: : 4. The use of in-line NDT sensors resulted in drastic reductions in scrap materials prevalent in wire, tubing, plate and sheet manufacturing.
: .
: : 5. The discovery of X-rays launched both the medical and industrial practices used today.
: .
: : 6. Pulse-echo ultrasound permits thickness gauging and gathering of reflector depth information with access from only one surface.
: .
: : 7. The radiography of the Liberty Bell dramatizes to the world the role of NDT in a populist manner.
: .
: : 8. What are your thoughts on positive impacts brought about through NDT throughout the years???
: .
: : .................
: .
: : Here are some of the negatives (false-starts, follies, embarrasing moments, etc.)
: .
: : 1. Inspectors being fooled by wrap-around UT signals when testing large components such as reactor nozzles and railroad tracks.
: .
: : 2. The early promises of "new" technologies such as acoustic emission, neural nets, and others touted as revolutionary in their ability to predict materials/systems failure.
: .
: : 3. Elaborate systems developed in the name of improved NDT but resulting in "white elephants".
: .
: : 4. Events where NDT predicted one thing, but, due to false indications or similar situations, just the opposite was true. For example, the NDT operator calls the presence of a service-threatening indication which is in reality an unexpected anomaly in the material, joint, assembly, etc.
: .
: : 5. Projects that involved NDT operations and that called for great amounts of financial support but failed in a most public or disastorous manner.
: .
: : 6. What are some of your favorite stories along any of these lines?
: .
: : ................
: .
: : I plan to compile all of the contributions into a final listing and will distribute the results to all of the contributors. This is intended to present the good and the amusing aspects of the evolution of NDT to new entrants into the field so they have some feel for the interesting technology they are entering.
: .
: : Your help is greatly appreciated.
: .
: : Dr. Matthew J. Golis
: : Advanced Quality Concepts
: : PO Box 141388, Columbus, OH 43214
: : Tel: (614) 268-0518
: : Fax: (614) 267-6288
: : E-mail: mattgolis@columbus.rr.com
: .
.



 
08:35 Feb-08-2003
Matt Golis
Re: NDT History Events Dave:

You, and several others, have brought to my attention the contribution fracture mechanics has made in the creation of higher expectations of the NDT community.

A few "themes" are evolving from the comments I have been receiving including the following:

The impact of tip diffraction: (starting with early recognition, to the delta technique, to crack sizing in the nuclear industry, advancing to TOFD imaging)

The impact of Round-Robin studies: the EPRI recognition of the difficulty in detecting IGSCC, the Pisc II studies, the Have Cracks study

The equipment evolution: shop floor hulks, to immersion scanning, to transistorized units, to the digital revolution, to transducer control (ala phased arrays)

If you or others have any ideas that can expand on these and the previously noted requests, please join in the fun of justifying our existance.


: I would suggest that the development of fracture mechanics followed by the adoption of damage tolerance design and maintenance in the USAF (then the FAA, CAA, and many others) is a milestone for NDT in the aerospace community, as damage tolerance (retirement for cause, safety by inspection, etc.) put the emphasis on quantitative NDT, and also provided concrete rationale for using improved NDT in many situations.
.
: My understanding is that the famous "Have Cracks Will Travel" was an effort by the USAF community to determine whether their existing NDT capabilities were sufficient to support the implementation of damage tolerance.
.
: Damage tolerance also requires the measurement of NDT reliability, and this therefore also drove the development of the Probability of Detection approach to the measurement of NDT reliability which is common in North America today.
.
: Dave.
.
: ( from Matt):
.
: : John
: .
: : You are exactly correct. Do you know of any event that triggered the Have Cracks program which as you say, resulted in our learning of how weak some of the inspections were.
.



 
08:24 Feb-10-2003

Mike Trinidad

Consultant, API 510 570 & 653
Marine Inspection Service Pty Ltd (MIS),
Australia,
Joined Jan 2003
138
Re: NDT History Events G'Day Matt

My two bobs worth

"First- What have been the commercial "drivers" for NDT." Interestingly enough we are not far from being ambulance chasers however in the case of NDT it is generally not that we want to but the inaction of others. What I am saying is that everytime there is a big catastrophe or accident NDT gets a big push but the majority of these events were preventable in the first place. Not too many of the big accidents just happen, most occur because inaction or a more direct word imcompetence. Take for example the US navy submarine the USS Thresher. Recent failures in brazed joints on another submarine prompted the navy to request 100% inspection of all the sil-brazed joints in the system. The Thresher could go deeper with subsequent more pressure as it was newer however at the time UT was considered time consumming and was cancelled. The rest is history. The JAG court of inquiry cannot without a doubt state what occurred but trials on similar subs and sil-brazed joints considered it most probable.

I think there are many examples of the situation above which occur everyday. What worries me is many designs now cut everything down to the minimum thickness, weight etc with no allowance for anything let alone fatigue.

"Second - How has NDT been made known to the general public? Your Internet site is a good example. Have we had any significant public awareness events or processes that have proven to be particularly effective in changing the public's awareness or confidence in NDT?" To date I have yet to meet a member of the public that has any awareness of what an NDT person does. Websites and books and conferences are all good and well but in reality it is NDT people that go to the sites. If a member of the public came here it would be because he/she was looking for NDT (National Debating Team). When a member of the public flies in a 747 he doesn’t think about the guys that tore the engine to pieces or the guy who UT inspected the wing attachments, all they think about is theguy in the front seat who pushes autopilot after takeoff (that’s why they get all the attention and nice salaries).

Regarding significant events.

Pro's

1. Improved NDT certification bodies.
2. ASNT. I am not sure whether or not they were the first but they have had a big impact. Many of the other certification bodies and institutes such as AINDT and BINDT which promote professionalism.
3. More computing power as most of the advanced methods would be impossible without it like LRUT, TOFD, AE etc. I have to agree with John Rodgers about the topic of AE as I find it is extremely useful in pressure vessels and tanks.
4. Internet and websites such as this and others that allow with such ease discussion on all matters and have a wealth of information to be searched through.

Bad

1. The cost of certification versus salary has become ridiculous.
2. The 80’s economic crisis, as after that the bean counters had all the say in that the best company doesn’t get the job but the cheapest will in most tenders/quotes.


Kindest Regards

Mike Trinidad


 
03:37 Feb-13-2003
Dave Davies
Re: NDT History Events I would like to add some thoughts from a purely personal viewpoint. I cut my teeth on pressure vessels etc for power stations in the UK, mostly UT so I am a little biased.

Firstly in the sixties, the development of the beam edge sizing methods which made possible the development and use of fracture mechanics for accept/reject standards.
The program by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) in England of discontinuity monitoring in its plants over a period of years (mid - late 70's?)that depended on the above to give meaningful results.

Secondly the calibrated attenuator that came out of the above.

Thirdly, miniaturised UT flaw detectors (remember the USK 4?) The instruments of the time (mains powered valve units e.g USIP 10) would not go through access holes in pressure vessels so limiting the UT inspection of butt and nozzle welds. Transistorised units also gave us a measure of stability in the instruments. (But the magnifying lens did my eyesight no good at all).

On the RT side the development of remote isotope exposure units (such as Tech Ops / Sentinel 660) which have reduced exposure to personnel enormously. I shudder to think of the equipment we used in the 60's.
Threaded welding rods and magnets anyone??

Later on the controlled area system, SCAR, another major safety (and productivity) advance.

On the certification scheme everyone seems to forget the CEGB who ran certification in the sixties well before ASNT, CSWIP, PCN. And it was a toughie, no written but the practical was monitored and constant pressure applied to check your ability to stand up to welding foremen etc. Also in the aerospace field I believe the AQD in Britain had a scheme that predated this and was equally searching.


On the negative side, the great names in the industry are leaving us and there are seemingly very few giants to step into their place. How many truly practical advances have been made recently, the emphasis seems to be on equipment advances.
The industry has been severely damaged by bean counters more interested in saving a few dollars than getting a good job. The old strong personalities who always strove for excellence are being replaced by administrators with budgets etc.

When someone can set up as a (e.g.) plumber with very little experience and cheap tools , no certification or renewals and charge double + that for an NDT specialist with very expensive equipment, training and certification there must be something very wrong.

Getting good training and experience is now very difficult (and I work in training so know how difficult it is to get people released).


Another bad period, for me, was the first digital UT instruments with push button adjustments. They drove me crazy with their slow start and as you get close to the point required suddenly accelerate and whiz past the chosen point. So you have to start the process again, but in reverse. It took an old man like me a long time to adjust. Now I see they are incorporating rotary controls which only proves I was right all along.

And finally the demise of the apprentice scheme which, with the advancing age of much of the workforce is, in my opinion, restricting the growth of engineering in general. Designers place more stress on materials and we need to increase inspection all along the line, not reduce it.

Sorry to go on but I have been in the game a long time and could probable fill several pages given time to think.


 
07:50 Feb-13-2003

Ed Ginzel

R & D, -
Materials Research Institute,
Canada,
Joined Nov 1998
1191
Re: NDT History Events It seems odd that some of the "History" of NDT we are now discussing is actualy in relatively recent living memory. Mechanisation of ultrasonic testing has come a long way over the past 30-40 years. I remember my first exposure to "computerised" UT using a scanner and data acquisition system with an Apple IIe computer (with Dual Outboard Floppy Drives!!), using "peeks" and "pokes" to alter settings.

But the original C-scan and B-scan displays were even earlier. There is an interesting website with some old photos of UT equipment http://www.uxr.com/webpg9.htm
(I used some of these models in my early days and the relief that miniaturisation brought to fieldwork cannot be understated).
Ed


: I would like to add some thoughts from a purely personal viewpoint. I cut my teeth on pressure vessels etc for power stations in the UK, mostly UT so I am a little biased.
.
: Firstly in the sixties, the development of the beam edge sizing methods which made possible the development and use of fracture mechanics for accept/reject standards.
: The program by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) in England of discontinuity monitoring in its plants over a period of years (mid - late 70's?)that depended on the above to give meaningful results.
.
: Secondly the calibrated attenuator that came out of the above.
.
: Thirdly, miniaturised UT flaw detectors (remember the USK 4?) The instruments of the time (mains powered valve units e.g USIP 10) would not go through access holes in pressure vessels so limiting the UT inspection of butt and nozzle welds. Transistorised units also gave us a measure of stability in the instruments. (But the magnifying lens did my eyesight no good at all).
.
: On the RT side the development of remote isotope exposure units (such as Tech Ops / Sentinel 660) which have reduced exposure to personnel enormously. I shudder to think of the equipment we used in the 60's.
: Threaded welding rods and magnets anyone??
.
: Later on the controlled area system, SCAR, another major safety (and productivity) advance.
.
: On the certification scheme everyone seems to forget the CEGB who ran certification in the sixties well before ASNT, CSWIP, PCN. And it was a toughie, no written but the practical was monitored and constant pressure applied to check your ability to stand up to welding foremen etc. Also in the aerospace field I believe the AQD in Britain had a scheme that predated this and was equally searching.
.
:
: On the negative side, the great names in the industry are leaving us and there are seemingly very few giants to step into their place. How many truly practical advances have been made recently, the emphasis seems to be on equipment advances.
: The industry has been severely damaged by bean counters more interested in saving a few dollars than getting a good job. The old strong personalities who always strove for excellence are being replaced by administrators with budgets etc.
.
: When someone can set up as a (e.g.) plumber with very little experience and cheap tools , no certification or renewals and charge double + that for an NDT specialist with very expensive equipment, training and certification there must be something very wrong.
.
: Getting good training and experience is now very difficult (and I work in training so know how difficult it is to get people released).
.
:
: Another bad period, for me, was the first digital UT instruments with push button adjustments. They drove me crazy with their slow start and as you get close to the point required suddenly accelerate and whiz past the chosen point. So you have to start the process again, but in reverse. It took an old man like me a long time to adjust. Now I see they are incorporating rotary controls which only proves I was right all along.
.
: And finally the demise of the apprentice scheme which, with the advancing age of much of the workforce is, in my opinion, restricting the growth of engineering in general. Designers place more stress on materials and we need to increase inspection all along the line, not reduce it.
.
: Sorry to go on but I have been in the game a long time and could probable fill several pages given time to think.
.



 
00:45 Feb-13-2003

Dent McIntyre

Consultant, NDE Manager NDELevel III/3
NDT Consultant,
Canada,
Joined Nov 1998
244
Re: NDT History Events Ed:
I guess we are all living history. I have 36 years of this stuff behind me.
Some tid bits for a laugh or two.

Canada began central certification in 1961. Thank You to Mr Havercroft.
SNT TC 1A started around 1968
I learned that NDT existed in Technical School in 1965.
Went to Sperry (Automation Industries)UT school in 1967. Used a Sperry Reflectoscope model 721. Then something they called a UCD. Have we come a long way since then!
Branson 600 UT scopes in the early 70's
Krautkramer USIP 11 was the 'machine of the world' in the mid 70's.
The first ASNT level III exams were in 1976.

Remember the old Sonizon? Resonance Thickness tester.
I have the ASME Code for 1930. Do you want to know how to test rivets? Not one mention of NDT

I have seen PT performed with kerosene and whitewash and it was less than 10 years ago. Guess where and what on?

Memories.




 
02:05 Feb-13-2003

Rolf Diederichs

Director, Editor, Publisher, Internet, PHP MySQL
NDT.net,
Germany,
Joined Nov 1998
600
Re: NDT History Events It is true that mostly NDT people visit this web site and thats good. But there is a significant part with no knowledge in NDT coming just while searching the Internet for a solution. This is shown by a lot of messages of such non-NDT people addressed to me as editor of this site. Also if you look at this forum, you can find those people seeking for a solution. By this way we are increasing the public awareness of NDT step by step.
But my original issue, the event "CD-ROM of the 15th WCNDT brought to the public", was really addressed to NDT people.
We all know what little part of NDT people have the privilege to join a conference or its literature, but now everybody enough intelligence can benefit from information on the Internet. Like this we serve the Freedom of Information Act - FOIA !

Rolf

-----------------------------
: "Second - How has NDT been made known to the general public? Your Internet site is a good example. Have we had any significant public awareness events or processes that have proven to be particularly effective in changing the public's awareness or confidence in NDT?" To date I have yet to meet a member of the public that has any awareness of what an NDT person does. Websites and books and conferences are all good and well but in reality it is NDT people that go to the sites. If a member of the public came here it would be because he/she was looking for NDT (National Debating Team). When a member of the public flies in a 747 he doesn’t think about the guys that tore the engine to pieces or the guy who UT inspected the wing attachments, all they think about is the guy in the front seat who pushes autopilot after takeoff (that’s why they get all the attention and nice salaries).





 
04:43 Sep-24-2004
Tarapada Pyne
Re: NDT History Events Sub: NDT of concrete foundation

I appreciate if someone educates me on these:
* NDT of concrete and reliability of data for fault loacting and identification of size/shape on Concrete Machine Foundation
* Standards followed with values.
* How it differs with NDT of other application, say UST.
* Successful NDT methods of testing of concrete.
* Analyst certification requirement if any like mandatory in other applications.

Thankful to you !!
Pyne




 


© NDT.net - The Web's Largest Portal of Nondestructive Testing (NDT) ISSN 1435-4934

Open Access Database, |Conference Proceedings| |Articles| |News| |Exhibition| |Forum| |Professional Network|