where expertise comes together - since 1996 -

The Largest Open Access Portal of Nondestructive Testing (NDT)

Conference Proceedings, Articles, News, Exhibition, Forum, Network and more

where expertise comes together
- since 1996 -

TWI
TWI is a world leading research and technology organisation established in 1946. From bases in the UK, USA, China, Malaysia, Middle East, India a ...
13359 views
Technical Discussions
Elena Jasiuniene (Chair)
R & D,
Ultrasound Institute, Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania, Joined Oct 2010, 1

Elena Jasiuniene (Chair)

R & D,
Ultrasound Institute, Kaunas University of Technology,
Lithuania,
Joined Oct 2010
1
09:10 May-03-2011
Online Workshop Open: NDT&E of Composite Materials (CompNDT 2011)

Authors in MyNDT



It is s a great pleasure for us to welcome you to CompNDT Workshop. We hope, that this workshop will help everyone to exchange the ideas, establish personal contacts and maybe to find the partners for the future collaboration.


The technical program has been organized with three sessions divided according the used techniques. Ultrasonic techniques seem to be most popular for the testing of composite materials, but you can find examples of other techniques as well. Authors and guests are invited to ask the questions and start discussions. The workshop will take place during the whole month of May.

Thank you very much for your contributions to the workshop. We wish you a fruitful event!



Organizing Committee
Elena Jasiuniene

Ultrasound Institute
Kaunas University of Technology

Rolf Diederichs


NDT.net



All 23 Presentations

All Authors


Abstract Booklet



Exhibition "composite"
Database "composite"

 
 Reply 
 
zbyna
NDT Inspector,
Czech Republic, Joined Apr 2011, 7

zbyna

NDT Inspector,
Czech Republic,
Joined Apr 2011
7
14:51 May-18-2011
Detection of Defects in Massive Concrete Blocks by Impact-Echo

Hallo, I'd just like to remark that I've uploaded my presentation, please see the video
 
 Reply 
 
Morteza
Morteza
16:44 May-19-2011
Closed delaminations in composites
Hi to all,

First of all, I'd like to thank you to make this online workshop and make the opportunity for interested people to ask their questions. In fact, this is a great idea to share knowledge in this field.

I have a question:

What methods can detect the closed delaminations ( kissing bonds / closed cracks) in the composite materials in practice? Is there any standards for the inspection of this type of defects?

Kind regards
 
 Reply 
 
Natalia Podymova
R & D,
Physics Faculty of M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia, Joined Apr 2011, 2

Natalia Podymova

R & D,
Physics Faculty of M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University,
Russia,
Joined Apr 2011
2
12:59 May-20-2011
Re: Closed delaminations in composites
In Reply to Morteza at 16:44 May-19-2011 .

Dear colleague!
Maybe the following paper will be useful for you concerning detection the closed delaminations in the composite materials:
"Contact Laser Ultrasonic Evaluation of Composites"
A. Karabutov, E. Savateeva, A. Zharinov, J. Filatov, S. Khizhnyak, V. Koshkin
(published in ECNDT 2010 - Materials Characterization)

http://www.ndt.net/?id=9380

 
 Reply 
 
Marco A. Pérez
Marco A. Pérez
13:02 May-20-2011
Re: Closed delaminations in composites
In Reply to Morteza at 16:44 May-19-2011 .

Dear Morteza,

It depends on the material and the size of the defect. You have several options: infrared thermography, laser holography and shearography, X-Ray computed thermography, ...
But in practice, ultrasonic testing (e.g. phased array) works if you have a proper calibration.

Kind regards,

 
 Reply 
 
Thomas Krause
Teacher, Teacher, Consultant
Royal Military College of Canada, Canada, Joined Apr 2011, 1

Thomas Krause

Teacher, Teacher, Consultant
Royal Military College of Canada,
Canada,
Joined Apr 2011
1
15:15 May-20-2011
Re: Closed delaminations in composites
In Reply to Morteza at 16:44 May-19-2011 .

Hello Morteza

As well as disbonds in composites [1] my experience includes ultrasonic detection of cracks in metals, which I would infer have similariteis with composite delaminations. The tighter the crack the more ultrasound that will pass through and the less detectable it will become. Opening the crack or delamination by loading the sample will result in more reflection at the interface and thereby facilitate detection by either pulse echo or through transmission techniques. We have found through-transmission techniques easier to interpret due to the many interfaces present in composites [1]. I am not aware of any standards for dtecting kissing bonds, however.

Best Regards
Thomas

[1] http://www.ndt.net/article/CompNDT2011/papers/16_Krause.pdf

 
 Reply 
 
Dr.Vijayaraghavan
Teacher, Consultant
Dhaanish Ahmed College of Engineering, India, Joined Feb 2011, 21

Dr.Vijayaraghavan

Teacher, Consultant
Dhaanish Ahmed College of Engineering,
India,
Joined Feb 2011
21
07:18 May-22-2011
Re: Closed delaminations in composites
In Reply to Morteza at 16:44 May-19-2011 .

Dear Morteza,
It would be better if you would have mentioned the type of composite. If the composite is of CFRP, infrared thermography can solve your purpose. You need to use pulsed active thermography in which lock-in thermography will be much better option. It is very difficult to use the same technique for GRP composites as the thermal diffusivity of the material is very less, especially for closed delaminations/kissing bonds. There is no standard for inspection of these types of defects. However, you can refer some of the peer reviewed journal papers to validate the results.

 
 Reply 
 
zbyna
NDT Inspector,
Czech Republic, Joined Apr 2011, 7

zbyna

NDT Inspector,
Czech Republic,
Joined Apr 2011
7
12:39 May-23-2011
Re: Detection of Defects in Massive Concrete Blocks by Impact-Echo
In Reply to zbyna at 14:51 May-18-2011 .

Dear Morteza,
method impact-echo as a resonance method is fully able to detect closed crack, please se literature Sansalone, Street (Impact-echo)

 
 Reply 
 
zbyna
NDT Inspector,
Czech Republic, Joined Apr 2011, 7

zbyna

NDT Inspector,
Czech Republic,
Joined Apr 2011
7
12:46 May-23-2011
Re: Closed delaminations in composites
In Reply to Natalia Podymova at 12:59 May-20-2011 .

Dear Natalia Podymova,
thank you for you remark,
I checked the article and found there the same approach as I have for my data evaluation (in my article on ndt.net_Detection of a crack in concret element by Impact-Echo). So that I think I cannot provide anything new for the authors. But we can discuss the topic together. Thank you again.

 
 Reply 
 
M Nahant
Engineering,
CRISIA - Haute Ecole Robert Schuman, Catégorie technique, Belgium, Joined May 2011, 1

M Nahant

Engineering,
CRISIA - Haute Ecole Robert Schuman, Catégorie technique,
Belgium,
Joined May 2011
1
14:52 May-23-2011
Re: Closed delaminations in composites
In Reply to Morteza at 16:44 May-19-2011 .

Hello,

It depends on the composite material you have to test. For concrete, infrared thermography works very well for very close delaminations (max. 1-2 cm).

Best regards,

 
 Reply 
 
flavio vendramin
NDT Inspector,
TAG s.r.l. Cremella ( Lecco ), Italy, Joined Apr 2010, 42

flavio vendramin

NDT Inspector,
TAG s.r.l. Cremella ( Lecco ),
Italy,
Joined Apr 2010
42
15:31 May-23-2011
Re: Closed delaminations in composites
In Reply to zbyna at 12:46 May-23-2011 .

hello Morteza:
for to detect delaminations in laminate CF I use UT tecnique, manual or automatic:
manual / automatic reflection technique ( to see the area and depht of the delamination:)
example:
1)Manual pulse echo long. wave with couplant, freq. 5 - 15 MHz search dia.25" delay line mm9.0 ( perspex material.)
2) manual pulse echo with squirter same frequency and search dia.
3) automatic pulse echo in immersion, ( C_SCAN representation ), squirter or PA
4) through trasm. for to detect only area of defect ( C_SCAN).
5) for honeycomb structure we use a through trasm. method

Ref. standard:
One material for to make an artificial defects in composite reference standard is Teflon,
but I used others material too ( you see a different attenuation with different material).
the artificial defects are important for to know for example, the sensitivity of the UT apparatus and the minimum defective area releaved.
Bye

 
 Reply 
 
Norsuzailina Mohamed Sutan
Norsuzailina Mohamed Sutan
15:34 May-23-2011
Re: Detection of Defects in Massive Concrete Blocks by Impact-Echo
In Reply to zbyna at 14:51 May-18-2011 .

Hi,

Your article is very interesting. I am just wondering if you have done some study on the microstructure espect of concrete block to interelate it with the result from impact echo test.

Kind Regards

Su

 
 Reply 
 
Natalia Podymova
R & D,
Physics Faculty of M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia, Joined Apr 2011, 2

Natalia Podymova

R & D,
Physics Faculty of M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University,
Russia,
Joined Apr 2011
2
16:13 May-23-2011
Re: Closed delaminations in composites
In Reply to zbyna at 12:46 May-23-2011 .

Dear Zbyna!
I agree that the principle of laser ultrasonic method is the same as the impact-echo method for concrete blocks, but the spatial scale of detectable defects is practically 1000 times smaller due to MHz frequency band and video-type temporal profile of probe pulses. So I think that possible sizes of defects should be qualitatively evaluated a priori and when one should choose the corresponding experimental setup. I'd like to thank you for your interest to our work.

 
 Reply 
 
amaru
NDT Inspector, - - gpr
marine, Algeria, Joined Mar 2010, 10

amaru

NDT Inspector, - - gpr
marine,
Algeria,
Joined Mar 2010
10
16:45 May-23-2011
Re: Detection of Defects in Massive Concrete Blocks by Impact-Echo
In Reply to Norsuzailina Mohamed Sutan at 15:34 May-23-2011 .

the GPR is the best method of concret inspection

 
 Reply 
 
zbyna
NDT Inspector,
Czech Republic, Joined Apr 2011, 7

zbyna

NDT Inspector,
Czech Republic,
Joined Apr 2011
7
15:48 May-24-2011
Re: Detection of Defects in Massive Concrete Blocks by Impact-Echo
In Reply to Norsuzailina Mohamed Sutan at 15:34 May-23-2011 .

Dear Su,
thank you for your positive comment. The concrete used for fabrication of the blocks was analysed by hard by my colleagues from Department of Building Testing. I was interested rather in the homogeneity of the material, because the rest I was able to determine in situ and thus do a calibration (slide 11, time 1min 57s, Starting Measurement).
You are right that details inspection of the own material could underline the results or show bad assumptions. Thanks again for the advice.

 
 Reply 
 
zbyna
NDT Inspector,
Czech Republic, Joined Apr 2011, 7

zbyna

NDT Inspector,
Czech Republic,
Joined Apr 2011
7
16:03 May-24-2011
Re: Closed delaminations in composites
In Reply to Natalia Podymova at 16:13 May-23-2011 .

Dear Natalia,
I am afraid I cannot use such high frequencies in concrete structures. Concrete is rather nonhomogenious material and thus even little stones would be seen in the detection. This is also connected with the message of Su, attention may not be paid to the microstructure when seeking for a "large" defects. As I comment slide 15 (2 min 47 s) in the presentation, we use relatively low frequencies (here 24 kHz). The longitudinal oscillation I am interested in is not higher.
On the other hand it IS interesting topic to observe - combination of small and big elements effect on the frequency specta..

 
 Reply 
 
Ali Aziz
Ali Aziz
16:04 May-24-2011
Re: Closed delaminations in composites
In Reply to Morteza at 16:44 May-19-2011 .

Hello Morteza!


Acoustical methods have been widely used for almost 30 years for flaw detection, visualization, and local parameter measurement of different materials. Recently, much progress has been made in the development and improvement of acoustical methods for the investigation of adhesively-bonded structures. These methods allow us to detect voids, delaminations, porosities, cracks, and poor adhesion. The most common techniques are normal and oblique ultrasonic scans, resonant ultrasonic spectroscopy, and Lamb-wave methods.

 
 Reply 
 
Morteza
Morteza
16:40 May-25-2011
Re: Closed delaminations in composites
In Reply to Morteza at 16:44 May-19-2011 .

Dear all,

First of all, thank you very much for sharing your information in this topic. Here, I would like to summarize these responses to get a good conclusion.

According to your answers, It seems that there are some potential techniques to detect closed delminations in composites materials in general.

First, most common techniques based on ultrasound, such as nonlinear ultrasound, and pulse echo or trough-transmission ultrasound while the composite is loading, resonant ultrasonic spectroscopy, and Lamb-wave methods, Impact- echo.

Second, infrared thermography which seems to depend mostly on the type of the composite.

Third, Laser Shearography and contact laser ultrasound.

And other techniques such as porosimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance.

We all know that these techniques have own their limitations, and many parameters can affect the detection of flaws such as type of composite material( GFRP, CFRP, Concrete, …), size of defect, and geometry and thickness, etc of the sample under testing. So these techniques needs to be calibrate to get the optimum parameters for the inspection of under test composites.

As it looks like there are no standards up to now, so we should first have reference samples of composites( CFRP) including this type of defects( closed delimitation or kissing bond) to apply these techniques. The question arises here is how we can manufacture these reference samples in the composite material, And which parameters should we consider in the fabricating of these references samples?

Kind regards,

 
 Reply 
 
Norm Woodward
Norm Woodward
20:20 May-25-2011
Re: Closed delaminations in composites
In Reply to Morteza at 16:40 May-25-2011 .

Just a late entry, in your rather impressive and exhaustive list...

I have nearly no experience with this method, and even less in concrete, but somehow "air-coupled" ultrasound would seem to fit into the mix, so to speak.

It, of course, uses rather low frequencies, and seems, as I recall, to be able to detect subtle accoustic impedence mismatches, such as found in a "kissing bond".

My total experience amounts to a rather impressive presentation and demo of one of the commercial units, the Curlin, but it seemed to have salient strengths that may be useful in this application.

 
 Reply 
 
zbyna
NDT Inspector,
Czech Republic, Joined Apr 2011, 7

zbyna

NDT Inspector,
Czech Republic,
Joined Apr 2011
7
13:06 May-26-2011
Re: Closed delaminations in composites
In Reply to Norm Woodward at 20:20 May-25-2011 .

Dear Norm,
thank you for your positive comment and interest dedicated to this thread/topic or even to the presentation of mine. It is exciting to read such remarks from somebody like you.

 
 Reply 
 
Joe Meyers
NDT Inspector
USA, Joined Feb 2011, 4

Joe Meyers

NDT Inspector
USA,
Joined Feb 2011
4
23:40 May-26-2011
Aluminum UT
Does anyone in the industry do ultrasonic testing in accordance with ASTM B594. My question is, if so, is an as-forged or "raw surface ok to perform the examination on as long as it meets the 250 arithmetic mean surface finish requirement?
 
 Reply 
 
H K Venkatesh Kumar
H K Venkatesh Kumar
11:26 May-30-2011
Shear wave method for testing rolled bars
We are having problem with one of our customer who is asking us to test bars of less than 100mm dia rolled bars by angular probe (shear wave technique). But as per ASTM standard it is only for forgings, Hollow sections, welding etc. The customer is insisting this method to detect surface and subsurface cracks in longitudinal direction. Is it correct to use this method for this purpose? We have thousands of bars 100mm and below wih length 3m to 7m.
 
 Reply 
 
S V Swamy
Engineering, - Material Testing Inspection & Quality Control
Retired from Nuclear Fuel Complex , India, Joined Feb 2001, 787

S V Swamy

Engineering, - Material Testing Inspection & Quality Control
Retired from Nuclear Fuel Complex ,
India,
Joined Feb 2001
787
13:58 May-30-2011
Re: Shear wave method for testing rolled bars
In Reply to H K Venkatesh Kumar at 11:26 May-30-2011 .

Well, you can suggest a better alternative specification that addresses the customer's requirement, and demonstrate its efficacy. If not, why not satisfy the customer? ASNT specification or any other specification does not prohibit an extended use, that is use beyond the scope.

Regards

S V Swamy
Quality & NDT Consultant

 
 Reply 
 
Godfrey Hands
Consultant,
PRI Nadcap, United Kingdom, Joined Nov 1998, 303

Godfrey Hands

Consultant,
PRI Nadcap,
United Kingdom,
Joined Nov 1998
303
08:21 May-31-2011
Re: Shear wave method for testing rolled bars
In Reply to H K Venkatesh Kumar at 11:26 May-30-2011 .

Hello Mr. Kumar,

Shear wave testing is a technique used in some automated machines for testing round bar for longitudinal defects.
It's use is however limited to the outer surface and just beneath the surface.

The automated system that I saw many years ago was installed in a steel mill and worked using a bank of immersion probes, rotating around the bar as the bar passed through the test station.
I have also seen a much simpler version where the bar is moved along, rotating, past a line of shear wave angle probes, connected to a multiplexed instrument.

The limitation of the technique is that it is impossible to test to any significant depth, so is limited almost entirely to the surface and just beneath it.
To inspect the centre-line for inclusions will also require 0 degree inspection, but that may not be what is required.

I hope this helps.
Godfrey

 
 Reply 
 
flavio vendramin
NDT Inspector,
TAG s.r.l. Cremella ( Lecco ), Italy, Joined Apr 2010, 42

flavio vendramin

NDT Inspector,
TAG s.r.l. Cremella ( Lecco ),
Italy,
Joined Apr 2010
42
09:27 May-31-2011
Re: Shear wave method for testing rolled bars
In Reply to H K Venkatesh Kumar at 11:26 May-30-2011 .

Hello Kumar:

This method is correct.
In immersion test you must to calibrate ultrasonic system on reference block with artificial defects ( notches) for to establish performance and sensitivity level, see AMS 2154 specification for example.
For manual test is necessary to employ the curved shoe at 45° - 60°, but is a very long inspection.
bye

 
 Reply 
 
Maurits Schultz
NDT Inspector,
United Kingdom, Joined May 2011, 9

Maurits Schultz

NDT Inspector,
United Kingdom,
Joined May 2011
9
09:38 Jun-01-2011
UT weld inspection according to AWS D3.6M
Hello all,

Does AWS D3.6M allow automated ultrasonic inspection of welds, in lieu of using qualified UT divers?

Thanks and regards,

Maurits
 
 Reply 
 
AKHILESH KUMAR
Engineering, - - material inspection laboratory mumbai
HAWA VALVES (I) PVT LTD>, India, Joined Aug 2010, 4

AKHILESH KUMAR

Engineering, - - material inspection laboratory mumbai
HAWA VALVES (I) PVT LTD>,
India,
Joined Aug 2010
4
16:06 Jun-14-2011
ABOUT UT
PLS ANY BODY HELP ME .

when talking about characteristics of Ultrasonic Flaw detector , how verticla linearty or amplifier linearty and db control linearty or attenuator linerty are two diffrent characteristics related to reciever amplifier of UFD.
 
 Reply 
 
AKHILESH KUMAR
Engineering, - - material inspection laboratory mumbai
HAWA VALVES (I) PVT LTD>, India, Joined Aug 2010, 4

AKHILESH KUMAR

Engineering, - - material inspection laboratory mumbai
HAWA VALVES (I) PVT LTD>,
India,
Joined Aug 2010
4
16:10 Jun-14-2011
UT
waves having frequency more than 20 khz are classified as ultrasonic waves but we are working in the range of mhz why? why
we are not working in the range of khz frequency?
 
 Reply 
 
zbyna
NDT Inspector,
Czech Republic, Joined Apr 2011, 7

zbyna

NDT Inspector,
Czech Republic,
Joined Apr 2011
7
12:08 Jun-15-2011
Re: UT
In Reply to AKHILESH KUMAR at 16:10 Jun-14-2011 .

Dear AKHILESH KUMAR,
lower frequencies are used because of big distance, the have bigger wave length and less damping, the impulse is not that much sensitive on the microscopic defects.
On the other hand, accuracy of higher frequency echo is bigger due to the smaller wave length. Is this enough for you?

 
 Reply 
 
AKHILESH KUMAR
Engineering, - - material inspection laboratory mumbai
HAWA VALVES (I) PVT LTD>, India, Joined Aug 2010, 4

AKHILESH KUMAR

Engineering, - - material inspection laboratory mumbai
HAWA VALVES (I) PVT LTD>,
India,
Joined Aug 2010
4
23:04 Jun-15-2011
Re: UT
In Reply to zbyna at 12:08 Jun-15-2011 .

THANK YOU MR.ZYBNA.

 
 Reply 
 

Product Spotlight

HD-CR 35 NDT Computed Radiography System

Portable high-resolution CR scanner for all radiography applications - weld testing, profile images
...
and aerospace. No matter what type of radiographic testing you are performing, the unique TreFoc Technology of the HD-CR 35 NDT imaging plate scanner always guarantees the highest image quality.
>

Navic - Steerable Modular Automated Scanner

The Navic is a modular, motorized, steerable scanner designed to carry multiple attachments used
...
in various scanning and inspection applications. The Navic is capable of weld scanning (girth welds and long seam welds), automated corrosion mapping, and tank scanning.
>

Lyft™: Pulsed Eddy Current Reinvented

PEC Reinvented—CUI Programs Redefined Corrosion under insulation (CUI) is possibly the greatest u
...
nresolved asset integrity problem in the industry. Current methods for measuring wall thickness with liftoff, without removing insulation, all have severe limitations. Eddyfi introduces Lyft — a reinvented, high-performance pulsed eddy current (PEC) solution. The patent- pending system features a state-of-the-art portable instrument, real- time C-scan imaging, fast data acquisition with grid-mapping and dynamic scanning modes, and flexibility with long cables. It can also scan through thick metal and insulation, as well as aluminum, stainless steel, and galvanized steel weather jackets. Who else but Eddyfi to reinvent an eddy current technique and redefine CUI programs. Got Lyft?
>

CIVA 2017 UT Module

CIVA NDE Simulation Software is the world leader of NDT Simulation. The UT simulation Module incl
...
udes: - "Beam computation": Beam propagation simulation - "Inspection Simulation": Beam interaction with flaws or specimens The user can simulate a whole inspection process (pulse echo, tandem or TOFD) with a wide range of probes (conventional, Phased- arrays or EMAT), components, and flaws.
>

Share...
We use technical and analytics cookies to ensure that we will give you the best experience of our website - More Info
Accept
top
this is debug window