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Technical Discussions
Maria Kyriacou
Maria Kyriacou
08:45 May-05-1999
Nodularity correlations to the ultrasonic velocity

I am a process Engineer at Holden (part of GM) in Australia and we are in
the process of setting up an ultrasonic velocity testing system.  We have a
pulse elcho immersion ststem set up with a transducer as the transmitter
and a single receiver  crystal.

As I am only beginning to understand the process of the ultrasonic testing
I would appreciate if you could point me in the right direction with
respect to literature related to correlations between nodularity in cast
iron and ultrasonic velocity.  I couldn't find anything I thought was
relevant on an internet search.

We are looking at using 80% nodularity checking as an acceptance/rejection
criterion for a casting and would like to understand what the relationship
are between the velocity and the nodularity and what (if any) other factors
should also be considered.  Is there any empirical data available that can
be used as a reference?

Regards,

Maria Kyriacou


 
 Reply 
 
Udo Schlengermann
Consultant, -
Standards Consulting, Germany, Joined Nov 1998, 182

Udo Schlengermann

Consultant, -
Standards Consulting,
Germany,
Joined Nov 1998
182
06:15 May-06-1999
Re: Nodularity correlations to the ultrasonic velocity

reply by Udo Schlengermann, Krautkramer GmbH, Germany (uschlengermann@krautkramer.de)


The correlation between nodularity and sound velocity in cast iron has been studied during the last 40 years.
Therefore most information is found on paper and not on websites.
For example you can study
Ultrasonic testing of materials
by J. & H. Krautkramer,
4th English edition (1990), Springer-Verlag, Berlin,
pages 423-430 for gray cast iron and pages 498-506 for steel castings.
There you can find a lot of further references.

Also you can read
Emerson, P.J.: Practical observations on ultrasonic testing of iron castings. British Foundryman 66 (1973)10,282-287.
Henderson, H.E.: Ultrasonic velocity technique for quality assurance. Foundry Trade Journal 136 (1974) 2985, 203-208.

For the latest results I recommend to contact casting research institutes, e.g. BCIRA in Birmingham, UK, or national societies of casting engineers.

We have the equipment to determine nodularity via sound velocity measurement.

Kind regards
Udo Schlengermann
+++++

: I am a process Engineer at Holden (part of GM) in Australia and we are in
: the process of setting up an ultrasonic velocity testing system.  We have a
: pulse elcho immersion ststem set up with a transducer as the transmitter
: and a single receiver  crystal.

: As I am only beginning to understand the process of the ultrasonic testing
: I would appreciate if you could point me in the right direction with
: respect to literature related to correlations between nodularity in cast
: iron and ultrasonic velocity.  I couldn't find anything I thought was
: relevant on an internet search.

: We are looking at using 80% nodularity checking as an acceptance/rejection
: criterion for a casting and would like to understand what the relationship
: are between the velocity and the nodularity and what (if any) other factors
: should also be considered.  Is there any empirical data available that can
: be used as a reference?

: Regards,

: Maria Kyriacou





 
 Reply 
 
Silvio Kruger
Silvio Kruger
02:07 May-07-1999
Re: Nodularity correlations to the ultrasonic velocity
ULLER, A. G. "The Effect Upon Mechanical Properties of Variation in Graphite Form in Irons Having Varying Amounts of Carbide in the Matrix Structure and the Use of Nondestructive Tests in the Assessment of the Mechanical Properties of Such Irons" American Foundrymen's Society Transactions, v. 88, 1980, pp. 545-574.

VAZQUEZ, L. B. L. "Determinación de las Propiedades Mecánicas de la Fundición de Hierro Mediante Control por Ultrasonidos" 46 Congresso Interamericano de Fundición, Madrid, 1979.

FULLER, A. G. "Nondestructive Assessment of the Properties of Ductile Iron Casting" American Foundrymen's Society Transactions, v. 88, 1980, pp. 751-768.

PAPADAKIS, E. P.; BARTOSIEWICZ, L; ALTSTETTER, J. D.; CHAPAMAN II, G.B. "Morphological Severity Factor for Graphite Shape in Cast Iron and Its Relation to Ultrasonic Velocity and Tensile Properties" American Foundrymen's Society Transactions, v. 91, 1983, pp. 721-728.

Collins, D. N.; Alcheikh, W.; Ultrasonic Non-Destructive Evaluation of the Matrix Structureand the Graphite Shape in Cast Iron; Journal of Materials Processing Technology; 55; 1995; pp.85-90;

I've been researching the possibility of using surface
acoustic waves for pieces of complex geometry were
longitudinal velocity use can present problems
(mainly geometrical problems).
Two papers have already been written:

- Kruger, S. E.; Gao, W.; Glorieux, C.; Charlier, J.; Rebello, J. M. A.; Lauriks, W.; Thoen, J. "Characterization of Cast Irons by Laser-ultrasonic Surface Acoustic Waves" Materials Science and Engineering A, v. 256, n. 1-2, pp. 312-314, 1998.

- Kruger, S. E.; Charlier, J.; Rebello, J. M.A "Characterization of Cast Irons by Leaky Rayleigh Surface Acoustic Waves" Emerging Technologies in NDT, Athens Greece, May 1999.

Silvio Kruger
skruger@ulb.ac.be
Service de Metallurgie Physique/UBL
Brussels, Belgium


 
 Reply 
 
dr trivedi
dr trivedi
02:35 Jun-03-2001
Re: Nodularity correlations to the ultrasonic velocity
: We have an equipment which can give accept and reject type of contro for S G Iron nodularity measurement
The equipment is specialy designed for online casting used for automotive industry General Motors.The cost of the eqipment is US$12500 .If you have accept and reject sample of Nodularity
100% inspection is possible.Time of testing would be less than 20sec/piece
You may get more detail about us at http://www.rooptelsonic.com
we look forward to your association
dr a s trivedi
roop telsonic
: : As I am only beginning to understand the process of the ultrasonic testing
: : I would appreciate if you could point me in the right direction with
: : respect to literature related to correlations between nodularity in cast
: : iron and ultrasonic velocity.  I couldn't find anything I thought was
: : relevant on an internet search.

: There are plenty of papers in this field, but most of
: them are very difficult to find.
: Here are some papers I've found:

: RICKARDS,P. J. "Progress in Guaranteeing Quality Through Nondestructive Methods of Evaluation" The Foundryman International, April 1988, pp. 196-209.

: FULLER, A. G.; EMERSON, P. J.; SERGENAT, G. F. "A Report on the Effect Upon Mechanical Properties of Variation In Graphite Form in Irons Having Varying Amounts of Ferrite and Pearlite in the Matrix Structure and the Use of Nondestructive Tests in the Assessment of Mechanical Properties of Such Irons" American Foundrymen's Society Transactions, v. 88, 1980, pp. 21-50.

: SERGEANT, G. F.; FULLER, A. G. "The Effect Upon Mechanical Properties of Variation in Graphite Form in Irons Having Varying Amounts of Carbide in the Matrix Structure and the Use of Nondestructive Tests in the Assessment of the Mechanical Properties of Such Irons" American Foundrymen's Society Transactions, v. 88, 1980, pp. 545-574.

: VAZQUEZ, L. B. L. "Determinación de las Propiedades Mecánicas de la Fundición de Hierro Mediante Control por Ultrasonidos" 46 Congresso Interamericano de Fundición, Madrid, 1979.

: FULLER, A. G. "Nondestructive Assessment of the Properties of Ductile Iron Casting" American Foundrymen's Society Transactions, v. 88, 1980, pp. 751-768.

: PAPADAKIS, E. P.; BARTOSIEWICZ, L; ALTSTETTER, J. D.; CHAPAMAN II, G.B. "Morphological Severity Factor for Graphite Shape in Cast Iron and Its Relation to Ultrasonic Velocity and Tensile Properties" American Foundrymen's Society Transactions, v. 91, 1983, pp. 721-728.

: Collins, D. N.; Alcheikh, W.; Ultrasonic Non-Destructive Evaluation of the Matrix Structure and the Graphite Shape in Cast Iron; Journal of Materials Processing Technology; 55; 1995; pp.85-90;

: I've been researching the possibility of using surface
: acoustic waves for pieces of complex geometry were
: longitudinal velocity use can present problems
: (mainly geometrical problems).
: Two papers have already been written:

: - Kruger, S. E.; Gao, W.; Glorieux, C.; Charlier, J.; Rebello, J. M. A.; Lauriks, W.; Thoen, J. "Characterization of Cast Irons by Laser-ultrasonic Surface Acoustic Waves" Materials Science and Engineering A, v. 256, n. 1-2, pp. 312-314, 1998.

: - Kruger, S. E.; Charlier, J.; Rebello, J. M.A "Characterization of Cast Irons by Leaky Rayleigh Surface Acoustic Waves" Emerging Technologies in NDT, Athens Greece, May 1999.

: Silvio Kruger
: skruger@ulb.ac.be
: Service de Metallurgie Physique/UBL
: Brussels, Belgium




 
 Reply 
 
Georg Arnolds
Georg Arnolds
09:23 Jul-27-2001
Re: Nodularity correlations to the ultrasonic velocity
Our material testing system operates fully independently on the resonance frequency principle and on the basis of a test instruction. The high classifying capability of the system is the result of matching the process to the specific product.
The Application areas: Cracks, structural faults, material composition (nodularity).
Time of testing would be less than 4 sec/piece.
G.A.
www.rte.de


 
 Reply 
 

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