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NDTnet & UTonline

The online Journal of Nondestructive Testing & Ultrasonics
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Ultrasonic Testing (UT) is a widely used Nondestructive Testing (NDT) Method


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This month new:
|Cygnus| INOEX| Lixi| Nukem| QMSystems| Sonotron| |Tektrend|
This Month's Introduction
This month we'll focus on Ultrasonic Thickness Measurement!
The first two articles can be used as thickness gauging tutorials.
Besides more Ultrasonic articles, we'er pleased to publish a Digital Radiography method for Wall Thickness Determination.
And we have started the new
UTonline Forum
We'll also focus on NDT of Ceramics -
All Abstracts from the Symposium on NDE of Ceramics at the American Cermic Society Meeting in May '97.
Of special interest is "Ultrasonic testing of green ceramic materials,"
available in English or German, lecture from the DGZfP Conference in May 97.
One of the thickness articles addresses application to imaging techniques to ceramic materials properties.
You'll also find "Refining automated ultrasonic inspections with simulation models".
This is a big paper, but give it time to load - it's worth it!
Survey Result of 'How are NDT manufacturers doing'
The survey shows some very interesting figures. Six of 50 users won spots in our drawing for a free CD-ROM.
But we would like to continue the survey and to update the results with more inputs.
Please fill out this survey. Plus, you could win a UT'96 CD-ROM.

NDT - Method

This Month's Articles
Thickness Measurement

Theory and Applications of Precision Ultrasonic Thickness Gaging
This paper summarizes some of the major aspects of precision ultrasonic thickness gauging. Ultrasonic nondestructive testing (NDT) characterizing material thickness, integrity, or other physical properties by means of high-frequency sound waves has become a widely used technique for quality control. In thickness gauging, ultrasonic techniques permit quick and reliable measurement of thickness without requiring access to both sides of a part.
By Kenneth A. Fowler, Gerry M. Elfbaum, Karen A. Smith and Thomas J. Nelligan, Panametrics NDT Division USA

On Resolution, Accuracy and Calibration of Digital Ultrasonic Thickness Gauges
The difference between resolution and accuracy is highlighted with respect to ultrasonic thickness gauges. After briefly describing the principles of operation, sources of errors are discussed, and where possible quantified. It is shown that calibration to national standards has no place in this field. It is concluded that while the thickness gauge is a valuable tool for routine inspection, the accuracy of its readings should not be accepted with unquestioning faith.
Peter Hammond, Cygnus Instruments Ltd

Thickness Measurement in Materials of Unknown Acoustic Velocity
This presentation will concentrate on thickness measurement applications. Conventionally, a calibration sample of the exact material to be measured is constructed. The thickness of this sample is measured precisely, as is the time of flight of an acoustic pulse through the part thickness. From this information, the acoustic velocity of the material can be computed. Subsequent time of flight measurements can be interpreted in terms of thickness if we assume that the acoustic velocity is identical to that of the calibration sample.
By Thomas J. Carodiskey and Paul A. Meyer Krautkramer Branson Lewistown, PA USA
See also: White, Dennis A., "Ultrasonic Thickness Measuring Apparatus and Method", United States Patent #4,398,421.

Thickness-Independent Ultrasonic Imaging apllied to Ceramic Materials
A single transducer ultrasonic imaging method that eliminates the effect of thickness variation in the image, and its application to plate and hollow tubular ceramic materials, are described. The thickness-independent ultrasonic imaging method is shown to provide more accurate and quantitative materials characterization as compared to that for conventional ultrasonic c-scan and apparent velocity images.
By Don J. Roth, Dorothy V. Carney NASA Lewis Research Center
See also: ROTH Don J., "Pulse-echo ultrasonic imaging method for eliminating sample thickness variation effects", United States Patent #5,629,865

Wall Thickness Determination in Digital Radiography
A software for interactive estimation of wall-thicknesses from digitised X-ray films is presented and its possible field of application is discussed. Both wall-thickness estimation from film density variation and edge projections are shown. A brief comparison to imaging plates is given.
By T. Wawrzinek, U. Zscherpel, C. Bellon, BAM - Berlin

Q & A - Thickness Gauging, Level 1 - 2 - 3
Interactive Quiz, R. Diederichs

86 Pantents on Ultrasonic Thickness Measurement
We searched Patent Databases and found 86 patents in 1976- 1997 for the serach criteria 'Abstract: ultrasonic and Title: thickness'.

Hundrets of links of Ultrasonic Thickness Measurement* on the Internet
If you want to find commercial information for buying thickness gauges, the Internet Search Engines turn out many results. Many links pointed to UTonline, however, other technical information was very difficult to to find among those hundreds of links. Nevertheless after a full day's work and using booelan search criteria we found some useful information on the subject. As usual, while surfing the Net we found some other interesting things also - but that will be another story.
*Note: We searched also for "fuzzy matches": gauging or gaging.

Ultrasonic Thickness Measurement on NDTnet
We searched NDTnet and found more than 100 results for the serach criteria 'ultrasonic and thickness'. Here are the most relevant articles, abstracts, UTonline encyclopedia and news.
NDT of Ceramic

Ultrasonic testing of green ceramic materials [D]
The aim of this research is an ultrasonic areascan of green ceramic bodies. First results of combinations of different coupling techniques will be discussed.
By Tietz, May, Dietz, Bühling Westsächsische Hochschule Zwickau (FH)

54 Abstracts of NDE of Ceramics
The Symposium on Nondestructive Evaluation of Ceramics at the American Ceramic Society 99th Annual Meeting, '97 May 4-7, Cincinnati, Ohio
Ultrasonic Inspection with simulation models

Refining automated ultrasonic inspections with simulation models
One important motivation for using an ultrasonic simulation model is the relatively low cost of software predictions compared to the cost of comparable experiments. A software package, UTSIM, has been created that can simulate ultrasonic measurements. A particular capability of this package, namely simulating and refining inspection scan plans, has been described in detail. Three examples were shown. The capability to quantitatively determine and refine the coverage of a scan is believed to be unique to this software. The software is applicable to most ultrasonic inspections. It is particularly useful for unusual probes and/or complex geometries where the field propagates in the least intuitive ways. Ultrasonic researchers at CNDE assisted with this work which was supported by NIST. This paper was originally presented as a Thesis for a Master of Science degree at Iowa State University.
By Michael Garton IOWA

NDTnet Exhibition
Please use our NDTnet Exhibition for your product information.
Only with our sponsors' help can we continue to operate this site as a free service.
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new: An interesting Survey Result on 'How are NDT manufacturers doing' is ready.
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new: |Cygnus| INOEX| Lixi| Nukem| QMSystems| Sonotron| |Tektrend|

NDTnet News - Market - Technology
News Archive '97
News Archive '96
15 Ultrasonic Patents
We retrieved some recent Patents through the Micropatent Patent Database.

A very fast method to determine total wall thickness of a pipe that has process fluid inside
A profile density measurement has been developed by Lixi, Inc. This new technique converts the absorption to a linear response after calibration of a pipe.

Database of Thickness Measurement Applications
The Panametrics NDT Division is continuously updating their Homepage. There you can find this comprehensive Database of Application Notes and much more.

Digital Ultrasonic Thickness Gauges for Non-Destructive Testing of metal and plastics.
The Cygnus Product Profile provides a full product range to suit all applications, Intrinsic Safety, Underwater (both diver and ROV deployed), Harsh Environments and datalogging.

QMSystems has also introduced a line of microprocessor based hand-held ultrasonic thickness gages
The gages are suitable for the measurement of the thickness of various materials where access may be limited to only one side. Applications include quality inspection of machined parts and corrosion surveys of piping and other critical components. QMSystems - formerly known as Rompas NDE and Ultrasonic Industries.

Preform Thickness Gauge PTG5000
TopWave International, Inc. announced a new automatic measuring instrument for material concentricity of PET and PET/PEN preforms.

A Tank Crawler System collects ultrasonic thickness readings.
The Automated Remote Tank Inspection System determines the shell thickness, corrosion, and structural integrity of tank shells and other hard-to-reach areas without erecting scaffolding or inspection platforms. Longview Inspection Examination Techniques.

You can submit your Web Page for the NDTnet '97 CD-ROM
All Internet sites with high quality good content can submit their pages for inclusion in the CD-ROM. All commercial sites can add their pages and become CD-ROM sponsors. Our CD-ROM makes a great corporate gift. Stick your company label on!

Rolf Diederichs' Newspaper Interview: "Auch im Internet gibt es Ländergrenzen" [German]
"Also on the Internet are Country Borders". A German Newspaper interviewed Rolf Diederichs and published an article about his experiences of developing NDTnet on the Internet - now in the second Year.

Departments Topics
Go Departments overview or go directly to the departments:
*Virtual Library *Ultrasonics by A-Z *NDT NewsWeb *Abstracts *Publications *Calendar *Workshops *Editorial
..... or read here this month new departments topics in brief.

  • Ultrasonic and NDT methods for thickness measurement (SPIE database)

    Virtual NDT Library

  • New Societies' Worldwide Map
  • New Thickness Page

    NDTNewsWeb updated


  • Table of Contents: Richtline US1 - Dickenmessung mit Ultraschall
    The 137-page book of the new German guidelines for wall thickness measurement - will be available in English.
  • WCNDT '96 Bibliograpy 155Kbyte !
  • QNDE '96 Bibliograpy
  • TOC - Oct 1997
    Examples of what we found:
    Journal: Solid state technology:
    Ultrasonic multilayer metal film metrology .... to measure the thickness of all layers
    Ieee transactions on ultrasonics, ferroelectrics
    Special Issue on Ultrasonic Transducers SEP 1997
    We starts with Material Evaluation - TOC of 11 issues 08/96 - 09/97 NEW
  • OCT 20-24, Pittsburgh: ASNT Fall Conference and Quality Testing Show

    Future themes

      Focus on UT & NDT in the Aerospace Industry
    • Evaluation of Scanners for C-Scan Imaging for NDI of Aircraft (Ultrasonic/Eddy Current) by Sandia National Laboratories sponsored by FAA.
    • Improving the Reliability, Quality and cost effectiveness of the inspection of Safety critical Structures by 12 Aircraft Industry Partners. Project was funded by the EC under the BRITE/EURAM Programme.
    • All Abstracts of NDE applied to Process Control of Composite Fabrication. NTIAC Conference '95 and '96. And much more ......
    • We viste the NDT facilities at Lufthansa AG in Hamburg at Oct 5 and will provide a report.
    • and more aerospace articles by NASA etc.
      Focus on EMATs, UT of Austenitic materials, Nuclear Power Plants
    • Chapter 4 and 5 of the Book "UT von austenitischen Plattierungen, ...."
      (UT of austenitic cladded components, welds ....) In English and German. and much more ......
      The UTonline Encyclopedia will be continued during '97 German.
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    ©copyright Rolf Diederichs, 1. Oct 1997