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This Month's Introduction
This month's articles focus on UT and NDT of Welds. Major topics are Reliability, TOFD, Spot Welds and EN1714. For a start you may study Weld Inspection of Ultrasonic Inspection 2 - Training for Nondestructive Testing and, as an exercise, 30 selected Q&A provided by NDT TestMaker software.

Edward Ginzel (MRI) and Hermann Wuestenberg (BAM) supplied major contributions for this month's topics. Both support our UTonline Forum and serve as Session Chairmen and on the 'Ask the Experts' panel. Join now! - Your personnel questions could be answered.

Thanks to the Proceedings of the European-American Workshop Determination of Reliability and Validation Methods of NDE (Berlin - June 1997, published by DGZfP) this NDTnet issue could grow into a comprehensive information on weld examination.


This Month's Articles -----
Back To Basics: Weld Inspection of Ultrasonic Inspection 2 [A]
This arctile provides the chapter on weld inspection of Materials Research Institute's correspondence training course 'Ultrasonic Inspection 2'. This correspondence programme has been provided since 1984. Courses are geared to meet the training requirements for the Canadian General Standards Board (CGSB) as part of the eligibility requirements to write the CGSB/ISO certification exams in nondestructive testing. These courses cover all subject matter required in ASNT & CGSB course outlines.
Edward Ginzel
TOFD Enhancement to Pipeline Girth Weld Inspection [A]
Much discussion has been given the pros and cons of TOFD in weld inspection. The paper gives a background to the application of mechanised UT to pipeline construction and goes on to demonstrate how TOFD is not an effective stand-alone UT technique for the needs of pipeline inspections where ECA criteria are used but acts as an effective safety net for some critical defects.
Edward Ginzel, Henk van Dijk, Merv Hoff
Critical Remarks regarding the European TOFD Draft standard [A]
Kritische Bewertung des Normenvorschlages zur Beugungslaufzeittechnik (TOFD).
The TOFD technique is able to detect defects within the middle section of the wall, but the results for near to surface defects are restricted. That means that weld defects which need to be recorded according to the established standard (e.g. HP 5/3), can not be detected reliably and in conformity to the new European draft standard.
P. Kreier, Innotest, Eschlikon (CH); G. Brekow, BAM, Berlin
Ultrasonic inspection of pores in electron beam welds - evaluation of detectability [A]
This investigation was carried out to study the detectability of pores in titanium alloy welds by the ultrasonic immersion technique. High-definition radiography (HDR) was used as a reference method. In the assessment of ultrasonic inspection data, a major parameter apart from the incidence and spatial distribution of flaws is the detectability of pores, or POD (probability of detection), as a function of pore size.
W. D. Feist, Daimler-Benz Aerospace MTU, München (D); G. -R. Tillack, BAM, Berlin (D). European-American Workshop, Berlin - June 18-20, 1997
Why develop acceptance criteria for pipeline girth weld defects? [A]
Reliability of NDE is difficult to quantify. In addition, it is not even clear what we actually mean by NDE reliability. For hardware, as an example, terms exist to quantify reliability of components, such as MTBF or Mean Time Between Failures. In reliability of NDE, such a term does not exist. This paper discuss what acceptance criteria have to do with NDE reliability, especially when mechanized ultrasonic inspection systems are used, and why there is a need to develop such criteria for pipeline girth weld defects.
F.H. Dijkstra, J.A. de Raad, Röntgen Technische Dienst, Rotterdam (NL). European-American Workshop, Berlin - June 18-20, 1997
How to develop acceptance criteria for pipeline girth weld defects? [A]
A project has now been launched to develop ultrasonic acceptance criteria equivalent to the presently used radiographic ones, and to demonstrate their adequacy for pipeline girth weld defects. The project therefore includes an experimental reliability data acquisition and verification programme, which is outlined. Results to be achieved, and evaluations to be done, are exemplified using available non-destructive examination reliability results from other investigations.
O. Forli, Det Norske Veritas, Oslo (N). European-American Workshop, Berlin - June 18-20, 1997
"Augur 4.2" ultrasonic system: features, reliability, applications to on-site expert examination of primary circuit piping [A]
The modern ultrasonic computer-based nondestructive testing system Augur 4.2 with coherent data processing is presented. First results of its practical on-site application to expert in-service inspection of primary circuit piping weldments are discussed. In brief, methodology of strength assessments using Augur 4.2 data is considered
S.E. Bougaenko et al Moscow (RUS). European-American Workshop, Berlin - June 18-20, 1997
State of the art in ultrasonic testing of spot welds [A]
Spot weld testing used in the car body manufacture within the automotive industry as a complement to the classic testing method using a hammer and a chisel. The article reviews the current state of the art in this testing technique. In Addition it is summariesed the article "Nondestructive Testing of Spot Welds - Examination of a modified Ultrasonic Test System (SD 272)"
Krautkramer Echo 36 and Summary of Special Document SD 272 by R. Diederichs.
Demonstration the capability of radiography for detection of large planar defects in thick-section welds [A]
This work has been investigating the reliability of the radiography performed on Magnox steel reactor pressure vessel welds during construction and has concentrated on planar defects of structurally significant size. This paper describes an extensive series of experimental studies of radiographic capability, for material thicknesses in the range 50-114 mm. The results demonstrate the capability of radiography to detect a wide range of manufacturing defects of a size which might be of structural concern, even when they are substantially misoriented to the beam.
A. B. Wooldridge, Magnox Electric, Berkeley (G B); R. K. Chapman, G. S. Woodcock, Nuclear Electric, Gloucester (GB); I.J. Munns, G.A. Georgiou, TWI, Abington Hall, Cambridge (GB). European-American Workshop, Berlin - June 18-20, 1997
The new EN 1714: Ultrasonic Examination of Welded Joints
The new standard is summarized by Rolf Diederichs.
30 Q&A of Weld Inspection - UT Level II
Materials Research Institute Canada contributed this month's Q&A from their NDT TestMaker software.
Edited by R. Diederichs
NDTnet Resources of NDT of Welds
Access to 38 Full Text articles as well as more resources of other NDTnet departments.
Untersuchung von Verbundmaterialien und Strukturen für die Luftfahrt mittels Laser-Ultraschall
Einblick in den Stand der Technik.
Honlet , Pfaffenhofen D, in DACH No. 61
DACH Zeitung is the jointly published German-Austrian-Swiss NDT Journal.
The following two articles are related to our last month's forum topics on Transducer Arrays and the Time-reversable mirror technique.
Ultrasound puts materials to the test [A]
Many industries use ultrasound to find defects in materials, and a new technique that seems to make time go backwards could make ultrasonic imaging more accurate and reliable.
Mathias Fink, Laboratoire Ondes et Acoustique, Paris - France
Thanks to the IOP Publishing (Institute of Physics) we are able to provide this article which was published in PhysicsWorld Febr 1998 issue.
Current issue of PhysicsWorld shows again a NDT related article: Listening to the sound of breaking glass
New work indicates that the sound emitted during fracture can strongly influence the way in which a crack propagates.
Impulse Diffraction in Solids Applications to Contact Phased Array [A]
This paper describes how the acoustic field generated by a phased array coupled to a solid can be modelled. In a first step, a modelling of the transducer-solid system is presented and validated by accurate measurements of the acoustic field. Then, thanks to some approximations, a modelling of a contact phased array is proposed. Simulation results are compared to measurements of the acoustic field generated in a duralumin sample by the phased array.
Philippe Gendreu, Rémi Berriet Imasonic, 15 Rue A. Savary, 25000 Besançon, France

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News Archive '98
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NUKEM: Inspection of welds
Nutronik markets a comprehensive range of inspection systems for all weld inspection activities, from weld and weld-section measurement of HF-welded pipes via inspection of submerged-arc welds up to and including end-cap inspection of pipes for nuclear service.

Durchbruch für neue Produktlinie - NUKEM-Arbeitsgebiet Nutronik expandiert im In- und Austand
Durchbruch für diese neue Produktlinie mit einem kürzlich bei NUKEM eingegangenen Auftrag der Mannesmannröhren GmbH, Mülhelm. Aber auch die Lieferung einer Vierkantknüppelprfüfanlage an die Baoshan Iron & Steel Corporation in Shanghai markiert einen Meilenstein für den Einstieg in den zukunftsträchtigen chinesischen Markt. Bereits im Januar ging bei NUKEM ein Auftrag der Mannesmann-Tochter MHP, Hamm, für eine Rohrprüfanlage Rota 90Z ein.

IIW Block Ultrasonic Characteristics - - ASTM Needs Your Help
IIW blocks of different steels and manufacturing processes can have different velocity and attenuation characteristics. This in turn may impact the results obtained from ultrasonic nondestructive examinations. The American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) needs your help in developing realistic tolerances for IIW carbon steel calibration blocks. Can you loan ASTM one or more of your companys blocks for a couple of months so that the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) can make specific parametric measurements?

Recent Weld Testing related European Communities News:
Materials characterisation and inspection of laser brazing and welding joints
CamuS: computer aided ultrasonic non destructive testing
Rapid Quality Weld Inspection without Surface Preparation
Development of a Portable Remote Controlled Real-time Radioscopy System for Quantitative Industrial Inspection of Large Thickness Steel Pipes and Weldings
Effect of Ultrasonic Scattering on Inspection of Austenitic Welds
Automatic defect characterization of materials by ultrasound

Departments Topics
this month's new topics in brief .....
About Departments
Abstracts SPIE: 44 Abstracts of NDT of Welds
NDT NewsWebReview of Last Month's Topics incl. a Search on NDT of Welds
  • Determination of Reliabilitiy and Validation Methods on NDE
  • NDE of composites ... NDE of pipelines SPIE Books updated
  • Introduction to the Non-Destructive Testing of Welded Joints Second edition
  • TOC: 'UT' is updated
  • TOC: NDT&E updated a new easy to brows layout.
  • TOC: Official journal of the Australian Institute for NDT
  • Forum
  • Introduction Edward Ginzel and Hermann Wuestenberg serve as Session Chairmen
  • WELD Q&A - UT Level 2
  • Virtual LibraryFrequently Updated
    Ultrasonics by A-Z Frequently Updated
    Calendar of Events MAY 26-29, Copenhagen DK: The 7th ECNDT coming soon!
    Upcoming Features
  • May '98: UT Equipment techniques (plus survey, win a NDTnet 96-97 CD-ROM Archive)
  • Jun '98: Rail/Railway Inspection
  • Jul'98: ECNDT Copenhagen
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