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ISSN: 1435-4934 The e-Journal of Nondestructive Testing & Ultrasonics - Publisher
The Journal's focus is on Nondestructive Testing (NDT) and Ultrasonic Testing (UT) in particular
June '98 Welcome!
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Dear Reader: The recent train accident may lead to some unusualness, e.g. some pages in German only. We work on corrections, also next month we'll present a full review in English.
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This Month's Introduction
We are back from the 7th ECNDT conference in Copenhagen with a full package of information. We'll publish a complete report in the July issue. Thanks to the 7th ECNDT for giving us permission to publish the ECNDT proceedings online. In July we'll provide all abstracts and in August we'll start with the full texts. The ECNDT '98 Table of Contents is already online.

Railway Testing
In sad coincidence with Germany's worst railway accident, this month's issue focuses on railway testing. The accident occurred on June 3 - just as we were putting the final touches on the new issue. We went ahead and released it, with a few additions pertinent to the accident, although it is not our intention to focus on catastrophic news (That is fully covered on the CNN webpage). The recent train accident shows all too clearly the importance of NDT in everyday life and its necessary to assure safety and reliability. We have some exceptional Railway Testing material in this issue which was presented at the 7th ECNDT. Mr. Schneider's (FhG IZFP) article describes an UT technique which was developed to prevent accidents coursed by broken railroad wheels of cargo trains. Topically is also the Article by H. Hintze, Deutsche Bahn AG, Kirchmöser.

The Forum discussion started already.
Read First Messages on this Topic

Internet broadcasting together with slides about the "Seiltanz" - Transcript
Rolf Diederichs talks about Deutsche Bahn and NDT responsibility (Realaudio file in German).

Rolf Diederichs in an Interview with Focus-TV on PRO 7

NDT
TOPIC
Abstract

This Month's Articles
UT
Railway
Ultrasonic Testing of Rails With Vertical Cracks - Numerical Modeling and Experimental Results
In the present paper, ultrasonic testing of rails (used in railway tracks) with vertical cracks is investigated experimentally and by numerical simulations. For this purpose, four different rail specimens were used. An ideal rail without any crack and three specimens with vertical cracks synthetically generated in the head, neck and bottom of the rail, respectively. The experimental measurements were done with normal piezoelectric longitudinal and shear wave ultrasonic transducers in pulse-echo configuration. Frank Schubert, Bernd Koehler Fraunhofer-Institute Non Destructive Testing (IzfP) Branch Lab EADQ, (Germany); Olga Sacharova Railway University St.Petersburg (Russia)
UT
Railway
Railroad -
Wheels
Ultrasonic Evaluation of Stresses in the Rims of Railroad Wheels
The stress states in railroad wheels are strongly influenced by the heating and cooling process during and after the brakings using brake shoes. Different ultrasonic set-ups to evaluate the stress states in the rims of monoblock railroad wheels are already in use. The characterization of the stress state in wheels with a slightly developed texture is possible as first results show.
E. Schneider *, R. Herzer Fraunhofer Institut Zerstörungsfreie Prüfverfahren (IZFP) Saarbrücken, Germany. 7th ECNDT Copenhagen 26 - 29 May 1998. Hear Mr. Schneider's 20 minutes speech.
UT
Railway
Railroad-
Wheels
Tiefenbestimmung von Laufflächenfehlern an Eisenbahnrädern unter Nutzung linear polarisierter Transversalwellen Verfahrens-Optimierung und -Erprobung
Durch regelmäßige zerstörungsfreie Prüfungen wird das Entstehen rißartiger Fehler überwacht. Zur wiederkehrenden Prüfung der Laufflächen des ICE wird u.a. eine Technik zum schnellen Nachweis und zur Lokalisierung rissartiger Laufflächenfehler mit in der Radlauffläche umlaufenden Oberflächenwellen seit mehreren Jahren betrieblich eingesetzt. Untersuchungen zur Rißtiefenermittlung mit eingeführten US- und anderen Verfahren, die von der Lauffläche aus arbeiten, durch die DB erwiesen sich aus verschiedenen Gründen als nicht brauchbar. Es wurde daher die Entwicklung und Erprobung des im weiteren vorgestellten Verfahrens durchgeführt.
H.-J. Salzburger, Fraunhofer Institut Zerstörungsfreie Prüfverfahren, Saarbrücken; H. Hintze, Deutsche Bahn AG, Kirchmöser
ECT
Railway
Railroad -
Wheels
Zerstörungsfreie Rißprüfung an Radscheiben für die Deutsche Bundesbahn mit dem Wirbelstromprüfverfahren Untersuchungsbericht
Die prinzipielle Möglichkeit der Tiefenbestimmung verdeckter Risse unter der Lauffläche von Eisenbahnrädern (Scheiben) mit dem Wirbelstrom-Prüfverfahren sollte geklärt werden. Die ersten hier vorliegenden Ergebnisse zeigen die Eignung des Wirbelstrom-Prüfverfahrens zur Ermittlung des Schädigungsgrades der Laufflächen von Radscheiben.
J. Rohmann, Frankenthal D
UT
Railway
Monitoring of thermal stresses in continuously welded rails with ultrasonic technique
The paper describes ultrasonic monitoring of longitudinal forces in continuously welded rail. Presented are laboratory and field tests performed with shear waves propagated in the rail height direction and with longitudinal, subsurface waves propagated along the rail. J. Szelazek, Institute of Fundamental Technical Research, Warszawa (PL)
UT
Railway
Archive
NDTnet
NDTnet
Table of contents of most important Pages concerning the Deutsche Bahn train accident on NDTnet. We'll try to add incoming updates on this page. Archive: June 1997 Issue No. 6 :
Zerstörungsfreie Überwachung an Radsätzen der Deutschen Bahn AG
Nondestructive testing of railroad wheels at the German Bahn AG
H. Hintze, Deutsche Bahn AG, Kirchmöser
This article asserts that the applied ultrasonic testing method does not effectively recognize all possible defects of the wheel. For that reason a task optimized the technique which showed first good results and plans for the necessary modifications are underway for a long term investigation at the service station in Hamburg. Our question mark: Are those investigations completed and modifications applied??
NDT
Responsibilities
in NDT

Probability
of NDT

New update from the Archive: Articles on Responsibilities in NDT:
Bedeutung der Zerstörungsfreien Prüfverfahren für die Produkthaftung (Teil 1)
C.O. Bauer, Wuppertal, Apr '97

Produkthaftung stellt Fragen zur Zuverlässigkeit der ZfP (Teil 2)
C.O. Bauer, Wuppertal, Juni '97

Qualitätssicherung durch Zertifikate - läßt sich Haftung delegieren?
C.O. Bauer, Wuppertal, Okt '97



Produkthaftung
Betreiberhaftung
UT
Guided Waves
Emerging Technology - Guided Wave Ultrasonics
Krautkramer's current NDTimes Newsletter hightlights a few of the applications in which Guided Wave inspection may improve test times and performance.
NDTimes Vol.2 No.2 Spring & Summer 98
UT
Turbine Rotor Bore Condition Assessment
Performing a stress analysis and fracture mechanics evaluation of a turbine rotor bore can extend the life of the turbine rotor or increase the turbine rotor bore inspection period.
George Montgomery, USA PE
NDT
Special
The Advantages of the Internet in the Field of NDT
Rolf Diederichs NDT Internet Publishing at the 7th ECNDT Copenhagen 26 - 29 May 1998.
UPDATE on WELD INSPECTION Issue APRIL '98
Thanks to the American Welding Society (AWS) we can provide the update below.
NDT
Weld
The ABC's of Nondestructive Weld Examination
An understanding of the benefits and drawbacks of each form of nondestructive examination can help you choose the best method for your application. Five basic methods are commonly used to examine finished welds: visual, liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, ultrasonic and radiographic (X-ray). The growing use of computerization with some methods provides added image enhancement, and allows real-time or near real-time viewing, comparative inspections and archival capabilities. A review of each method will help in deciding which process or combination of processes to use for a specific job and in performing the examination most effectively.
BY CHARLES HAYES
UT
Weld
Automotive Industry Turns to Ultrasonics for Spot Weld Examination
Nondestructive examination can now be applied to spot welds that typically require destructive testing.
Based on information provided by Panametrics, Inc., NDT Division, Waltham, Mass.

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News Archive '98
News Archive '97
News Archive '96

SPECIAL MAY '98 EXHIBITION
Thanks to the miracle of electronic publishing this last month's topic on Ultrasonic Flaw Detectors will continue to be open 24 hrs on the NDTnet server.

Fill out this Survey - win an NDTnet 97-96 CD-ROM!
We've received about 40 responses to our Survey of Ultrasonic Flaw Detectors characterizations but we'd like to present results based on a larger sampling.


Train Accident - (Chronologically Updated)
Wednesday's June 3. train accident in Eschede near Hannover, the worst in Germany in over half a century, shows all too clearly the importance of NDT in the railway industry. Germany's fastest train was traveling at 200 km/hr when it derailed and slammed into a bridge, killing 98 people.
Preliminary investigations place blame for the accident on a broken wheel. Schneider's article in this issue describes an UT technique which was developed to prevent accidents coursed by broken railroad wheels of cargo trains. It has been reported that the train received just one day before an 20.000 Km -Inspection. During this process also the wheels have been checked ultrasonically without recognition of any defect. The Deutsche Bahn has recalled all 60 ICE I trains back for inspection. The newer ICE II will continue in operation, at a reduced speed of 160 km/hr until further notice. We will try to keep you updated on this story.
CNN interactive about the high-speed train crash
German officials suspect damaged wheel caused crash
More of this disaster on the Internet
DB Pressemitteilung: Ultraschall-Untersuchung der Radreifen
A previous press release from the Deutsche Bahn AG (DB) stated that UT was applied for in-service inspection of the wheel involved in the accident, as recently as one day the derailment occurred. However, June 6. evening the Deutsche Bahn retracted their report and said that Ultrasonic testing was NOT applied at all and is not part of this inspection stage.

Probleme mit dem Rißnachweis bei Radreifen des Hochgeschwindigkeitszuges ICE
Problems With Crack Detection In High-Speed ICE Wheels
The Deutsche Bahn AG (DB) knew about the problems with the crack detection technique used on the railroad wheels of the high-speed ICE. "The DB knew that wheels must be tested" said Prof. Hermann Wüstenberg

Die Deutsche Bahn versucht abzulenken
Bessere Lösungen der Ultraschalltechnik wurden jahrelang versäumt einzusetzen. Neues Konzept auf dem Weg - Viele Experten halten dies jedoch für unzureichend.

dpa-Meldung: Hintergründe im Zusammenhang mit der ICE Radreifenprüfung
....... Rolf Diederichs am Mittoch im Interview mit dpa.
dpa News Message: Background of NDT on the German ICE wheel
....... Rolf Diederichs on Wednesday in an interview with dpa.
A number of TV channels wanted to send a camera team but I suggested that footage of the actual WebSite would be more appropriate. Finally we agreed to speak on TV. In our RealAudio speach together with slides Rolf Diederichs talks about Deutsche Bahn and NDT responsibility. Transcript of the broadcasting.

Pressemitteilung der DGZfP
.....Deutsche Gesellschaft für Zerstörungsfreie Prüfung e.V. - Der Vorstand

Gegendarstellung und Kommentar zu BILD am Sonntag 14. Juni 1998 'ICE-Sicherheit'
Der Zeitungsartikel gibt in der Art der Darstellung den Sachverhalt falsch und Unvollständig wieder.

Bis eine Prüfmethode freigeben ist sind alle ICE 1 Züge vorerst gestoppt
Viele Stellen arbeiten mit Hochdruck an der Freigabe einer Prüfmethode. Ist das noch erforderlich? Laut Meldungen der Deutsche Bahn sollen alle Räder mit Radreifen gegen Räder aus Vollmaterial ausgetauscht werden.

Der Vorfall bei der Deutsche Bahn ist in der Industrie kein Einzelfall
Der Artikel beschreibt die Gefahr der Kunststoffgasrohre - Ein ganzer Häuserblock kann einstürzen. Muß die Stahlindustrie schärfer prüfen als es der Verband der Deutschen Gütegemeinschaft Kunststoffrohr e.V. vorschreibt? Wieder nur ein TÜV im eigenen Hause?

Presseinformation des Eisenbahn-Bundesamtes und der Deutsche Bahn AG zu dem Eisenbahnunglück von Eschede
Diese Presseinformation enthält die Statements, die am 17.6.1998 im Rahmen der Sitzung des Verkehrsausschusses des des Deutschen Bundestages gehalten wurden. Wir sind der Meinung, daß Aussagen in diesem Text zweideutig oder sogar falsch sind.

Risshypothesen am Radreifen der ICE 1 der Deutschen Bahn AG
Einstieg in die Fachdiskussion

More information on our Discussion Board

Railway Occurrence Reports
These documents are the final versions of occurrence investigation reports as approved by the Transportation Safety Board. For example: .....inadequate inspection practices/equipment to detect slid-flat wheels
; and the lack of emphasis placed on safety inspections of passenger train brakes.

Patent Database Search Results: rail* and ultrasonic
US Patent 5363702: Device for inspecting the rim of a railway wheel
The carriage carries a grinding device and a hardness measuring device. Means permit applying a force on the hardness measuring device. An ultrasonic inspection device carried by the carriage may also be provided.
US Patent 5654510: Ultrasonic transducer apparatus for testing railroad wheels.
Hegenscheidt-MFD GmbH, Erkelenz, Federal Republic of Germany.

EU Project defines requirements for the safety and efficiency of rail transport
IN EUROPEAN RAIL TRANSPORT The REMAINS project aims to create practical and realistic methods and tools for evaluation as RAM (Reliability, Availability and Maintainability) in railway systems.

CRDM Housing Leak sends ABB NUCLEAR POWER TEAMS into emergency mobilization
An emergency mobilization effort occurred as the result of a leaking, part length Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM) Housing at a US nuclear power plant in February 1998.

Krautkramer Systems and Probes On The Worldwide WEB
The Krautkramer Web Site is online and ready to serve you with a vast array of products and services offered by Krautkramer Branson. Be sure to check out the new searchable Probe Databases, listed under Industrial Probes. For the USPC 2100 Instrument a User Forum is available to post questions and comments or you can just browse the answers to questions posted by other users.

Integrating Nondestructive Evaluation as applied in Aerospace into the High School Science Curriculum
NASA has made clear in it's mission the goals of maintaining U.S. aerospace leadership, ensuring safe global air travel, and ensuring a future generation of intelligent, qualified NASA teams. Meeting these goals requires research and development of technologies, to address issues in human factors, weather, aging aircraft, and other areas critical to flight safety.

Departments Topics
this month's new topics in brief .....
About Departments
Abstracts Exceptional we provide already 7th ECNDT abstracts for this month's railway topic - in July we'll publish all ECNDT abstracts online.
NDT NewsWebReview of Last Month's Topics
Publications
  • Nondestructive Evaluation of Aging Railroads SPIE Proceedings Vol. 2458 Editor(s): Donald E. Gray, Federal Railroad Administration, Washington, DC, USA; Daniel H. Stone, Association of American Railroads, Chicago, IL, USA. ISBN: 0-8194-1811-0, 240 pages. Published 1995 Meeting Date: 06/06 - 06/08/95, Oakland, CA, USA
  • TOC: Introduction to the Non-Destructive Testing of Welded Joints Second edition R Halmshaw
  • ForumAs usual, focus of this month's issue will be the theme of our discussion.
    If you are interested in other ultrasonic testing topics, don't hesitate to discuss them on this forum as well.
    Virtual LibraryFrequently Updated
    Ultrasonics by A-Z Frequently Updated
    Calendar of Events
  • SEP 14-18 Toronto, Canada First Pan-American Conference on NDT (PACNDT).
    Promising information will be presented by each speaker of 45 min in length.
    Rolf Diederichs will visit this conference.
  • Brijuni, Croatia, OCT 1-2 1998 MATEST'98 - International NDT Conference
  • Upcoming Features
  • July '98: Report and abstracts of the ECNDT Copenhagen, Railroad Review.
  • Aug '98: Proceedings of the ECNDT Copenhagen starting online

    Editorial
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